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International Affairs
INTA 1110
Tarun Chaudhary

9/13/12 Liberalism State of Nature vs. Human Nature - Classical Stoicism o What unites people versus what divides them  Division of capabilities o Reason - Enlightenment o Reason vs Religion  Rights come from reason, not necessarily religion o Individual vs System - John Locke o Wrote of the separation of church and state o People have rights that are not necessarily divined from divinity o Tabula Rasa  Blank Slate o Reason is the be-all end-all - David Hume o Thought along the lines of Locke - Jean-Jacques Rousseau o Believed humans are motivated by passion, the opposite of reason - Both Rousseau and Locke differed from Hobbes in the belief that human nature can be controlled and society can be structured to help society o Reason can be harnessed to build civil society Human Nature - Reason o Reason can be used to build civil society (Hume, Locke) - Passion o Animates human nature (Rousseau, Hobbes, Kant), but works in conjunction with reason - Biology o Human beings are similar, and society can reflect human needs (Rousseau) Emmanuel Kant – Perpetual Peace - Prussian professor of logic and metaphysics - Read Locke, Hume, and Rousseau - Does not believe in the Hobbes’ idea (strong state), Locke’s idea (knowledge is what is observed), or Rousseau’s ideas (passion) - Wrote a manual for a world without war – Perpetual Peace o Article I: The Civil Constitution of every State Shall be Republican o Article II: The right of Nations shall be based on a Federation of Free States o Article III: Cosmopolitan Right shall be limited to Conditions of Universal Hospitality  You are a citizen of the world; you’re rights are the same everywhere Influence of Economics - Individuality and Market o David Ricardo  division of labor, free market o Adam Smith  Wealth of Nations o Specialization and trade; the market drives quality and efficiency - Marketplace of “ideas” leads to best expression of civil society - Limited State or Expansive St
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