PSYC 4100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Working Memory, Affective Forecasting, Parietal Lobe

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23 Aug 2016
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Chapter 9
The Hierarchy of Linguistic Units
Sentence –express the intended meaning of a speaker
Phrase – composed of words that make up sentences
Word – composed of morphemes
Morpheme the smallest language units that carry meaning.
Phoneme units of sound used to pronounce morphemes/symbols used to
distinguish words
Place of articulationwhere airflow is restricted
Speech Segmentation – prior to phoneme identification, a listener
need to indicate where one sound stops and the next begins. “My name
is Amelia.”
Voicing- buzzing of sound through the opening and closing of vocal folds (v, z, n)
Unvoiced – letters f, s, and t
the English language produces 40 different phonemes
Various aspects of speech production provide a basis for categorizing
speech sounds
Manner of production – restricting airflow to distinguish sounds-how
For {P} air moves through the mouth (not the nose) with a full interruption of the air
flow. Unvoiced. bilabial
Speech perception –process in which you actively seek a match between
the sounds arriving at your ears and the words actually in your vocabulary
Crucial attribute of perception: supplement input with your knowledge
First phenome activates all words in that category of memory second
phenome narrows further the pair of phenomes in mental lexicon
Coarticulation –overlapping of phenomes to form words
-allows faster and more fluent speech production
Ambiguity in segmentation…. “The sky…vs… “This guy”…
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50 most commonly used words in English make up more than half of what
you actually hear.
Phonemic Restoration effect – speech perception guided by knowledge
that relies on the context in which it appears
Legi*lature burst of noise. Participants cannot tell at which syllable
the burst occurred, participants actually “hear” the word legislature.
Categorical perception – better at hearing differences between categories
of sound [d] and [t] rather than variations within a category (one [p] from
another)
allows you to not waste mental energy on inconsequential variations
within a category.
Experiments using a graded-membership pattern between [ba] and
[pa] sounds. As move away from [ba] protoype cases should be
harder to categorize.
Referent – “what a word refers to”. “It’s relevant concept”. Different than
just it’s meaning. Some phrases have no referent.
Orthography- spelling of a word (organiztion of letters)
Semantic representation – knowledge of word meaning
Phonologicial representation - how a word sounds
Conceptual knowledge
This knowledge is not conscious
Syntax – rules governing the sequence of words in a phrase or sentence
Prescriptive rules - rules describing how language is “supposed to be”.
Changes with generations. Ending a sentence with a preposition?
Descriptive rules - language as it is ordinarily used by fluent speakers and
listeners.
Linguistic universals – principles applicable to every human language
Sentence Parsing – each word’s syntactic role in a sentence
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-Slowing comprehension but avoiding errors. Method Not
used.
-identification begins as soon as we hear first phoneme
Strategies for parsing sentences: minimal attachment, an
assumption of active sentences, a reliance on function
words on background knowledge, conversational context.
Principles of language:
Semantics – knowing that detectives can “examine” but
evidence cannot.
Statistical in nature- knowing which usages are more
common.
Pragmatic (considerations of extralinguistic context)
Minimal attachment – parsing is guided by relevant cues
seeking the simplest phrase structure that will accommodate
the words heard so far. Leads to errors. Syntax
Garden-path sentences –initially lead to one interpretation, but
this interpretation turns out to be wrong. The information needed
to understand arrives late in the sentence.
Time flies like an arrow (But fruit flies, in contrast like a banana).
The old man the ships.
The secretary applauded for his efforts was soon promoted.
Plausibility of words
Extralinguistic context – the physical and social setting in which you
encounter sentences. (conversational context) Put the apple on the
towel in the box.
Prosody – the rise and fall of speech intonation and pattern of
pauses. “rhythm and pitch cues.
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