Charlie Chaplin – The Immigrant th
Major waves of European immigration in 20 century have been northward and westward. Jews
fleeing poverty and execution, Irish, Italians and Jews classified as “nonwhites” for a part of the
20 century, living in banlieue in Paris
In England, British Union of Fascists – Oswald Mosley, 1940. Right wing nativism in 1930s at the
time. Nicknamed “Black Shirts”
In Germany, three waves of immigration.
First was “displaced persons,” immediately postwar – people who had been dislocated, or in
concentration camps, or who survived death marches during last months of Third Reich. These DP
camps continued into 1940s because difficult to find new homes for people displaced by war.
Second was the wave of decolonization – many immigrants fled to western and northern Europe to
flee countries undergoing civil wars and wars for independence. Includes Gastarbeiters from
Vietnam in 1950s.
Third wave is Refugees from former Yugoslavia, mid 1990s. Fleeing conflicts in Yugoslavia and into
But, immigration not just about dislocation from war – also about seeking greater economic
opportunity. Many programs set in place, particularly in European continent and especially in
Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany to invite Guestworkers – brought in as cheap labor under the
proviso that their stay would be temporary. Most of these, young men with families, would earn
cash to send back to families. The Turkish population in German urban centers has grown
dramatically since introduction of Gasarbeiter program. By 1973, 2.6 million in Germany. But, some
reaction to this – xenophobia. After economic downturn of oil crisis of 7374, the program was
diminished, restrictions into place
But, these workers were not temporary – they put down roots, often married others in their
community, and stayed.
In England, immigrants from India and Pakistan have flooded in – Indians make up 2%, Pakist