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Lecture 19

GEO 207 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Wall Cloud, Wind Speed, Rain Shadow

Course Code
GEO 207
Amy Bloom

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1. What is weather
a. Weather
i. Variable conditions in the atmosphere
ii. Weather is affected by regional and local conditions
1. Prevailing winds
2. Topography
3. Vegetation
4. Land vs. sea
iii. Conditions and activity in the atmosphere at a particular time and place
1. Temperature
2. Air pressure
3. Humidity
4. Precipitation
5. Air motion
iv. Drives other natural disasters
1. Thunderstorms, tornados
2. Water on earth: climate and weather in the hydrologic cycle
a. Hydrologic cycle
b. Latent heat
i. Energy stored
ii. Water absorbs, stores and releases energy
c. Transmission of heat
i. Convection
1. Circulation
2. Warm rises
3. Cool sinks
ii. Conduction
1. Heat transferred
d. Air contains varying amounts of water
i. Humidity: water vapor in are
ii. Relative humidity: water content in air
1. Measured water content: maximum possible water content
e. Warm under saturated air becomes saturated as it cools
i. Dewpoint: temperature where air becomes saturated (100% humidity)
1. Warm air can hold more water than cold air
ii. Below dewpoint: dew or frost forms on surfaces
3. Lifting Air and Forming Clouds
a. Adiabatic cooling
i. Rising air expands without changing heat content
1. Heat is distributed over larger volume, so air becomes colder
2. Adiabatic lapse rate: rate of cooling as air mass rises
3. During condensation, air releases same amount of heat require to
evaporate it
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