PSY 110 Lecture 20: Ch. 8 Childhood Development

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PSY 110
Cathleen Campbell- Raufer

Chapter 8 Early and Middle Childhood • Phases of language development o Cooing ▪ 2-3 months o Babbling ▪ 4-6 months o One word utterances ▪ 12 months o Short phrases ▪ 18-20 months o Short sentences ▪ 2-3 years How a child’s speech differs from an adult’s • Overextension o Overly broad use of a word o Applying rules too far ▪ Dog with 4 legs and sees a cat, assumes it’s a dog • Overregularization o Applying rules the wrong way • Underextension o Under using a word o A Labrador Retriever as a dog and sees a different dog, can’t identify as a dog Theories of Language Development • Learning perspective o B.F. Skinner ▪ Reinforcement, imitation and shaping of parent ▪ Praise and discipline • Nativist Perspective o Noam Chomsky ▪ Brains are predisposed to learn language ▪ LED • Language activation device • Explains errors from overregularization • Natural development • Interactionist Approach o Combining the two theories o Helping children with language activation ▪ Using short phrases and repetition ▪ Chinese facilitation Socialization • Adopting socially acceptable values and behaviors • Learning from parents, peers, and media Parenting Styles • Three parenting styles (plus one) o Authoritarian ▪ Strict obedience, rigid rule setting ▪ Parents are authoritarian figure ▪ Obedience seen as a virtue to have it ▪ Physical punishment • Lower intellectual performance • Lack in social skills • Particularly harmful to boys • Withdrawal symptoms and anxiety when parent leaves o Authoritative ▪ Guidance and affection ▪ Most ideal style ▪ Parents supplying firm and consistent standards ▪ Want communication and is more likely to use negotiation ▪ Explaining rationales • Higher intellectual performance • Independence • Internalized moral standards • Higher self esteem • More mature o Permissive ▪ Warm, but not rules ▪ Children control the parents ▪ Showing their affection to the child ▪ Lack self control and more impulsive ▪ Not very self reliant • Poor academic performance • Drinking problems • Promiscuous sex • Dependent of others o Neglecting ▪ Uninvolved ▪ No rules imposed and no affection ▪ Potential outcomes • Worst • Delinquency • Adolescence • More drug use and abuse • Friends and peers influence beliefs, behavior knowledge about self (age differences) • Friendship is based on similarity; attractiveness o Athletic, academ
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