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Lecture 4

PSY 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Aversion Therapy, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Schizophrenia

Course Code
PSY 110

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A. Psychodynamic Perspective
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Freud's Theory
1. Behavior is driven by 3 forces:
a. Conscious (what we're aware of)
b. Preconscious (not currently thinking of, but easily accessible)
c. Unconscious (bulk of our mind; things we are not aware of)
I. How to reveal the unconscious:
1. Analyze mistakes (Freudian slips)
2. Dream Analysis
3. Free association report anything that comes to mind without
2. Three-Structure Model of Personality:
a. Id
I. Ruled by the "pleasure principle" - do what feels good NOW!
b. Ego
I. Organized, rational, planful
II. Ruled by the "reality principle" - can delay gratification until appropriate
III. Must find compromise between id and superego
c. Superego
I. Represents our conscience - tells what's right and wrong
II. Imposes guilt, anxiety if we do wrong
3. We use defense mechanisms (dm's) to avoid anxiety
a. Repression - "forgetting"
b. Displacement emotions redirected to a less threatening substitute
c. Denial inability to see or accept reality
d. Projection attributing own unacceptable qualities to others
e. Rationalization use "safe" explanations in order to deny real ones.
f. Others
g. Over-use of dm's presents problems
h. Therapy needed:
I. To reveal unconscious conflicts
II. To develop other coping strategies so dm's are no longer needed
4. Personality development
a. Five "psychosexual" stages:
I. Oral (first 18 months) - conflict over being weaned
1. Too late overly dependent
2. Too early overly independent
II. Anal (18 months to 3 years) - conflict over potty training
1. If shamed, become anal-retentive
2. If too permissive, become anal-expulsive
III. Phallic (3 to 6 years) - conflict about sex differences
1. Oedipus complex for boys
2. Electra complex for girls
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IV. Latency (6 years to puberty) - repressed urges; associate with same-sex
V. Genital (adolescence) - direct sexual urges toward socially acceptable
substitutes for parents
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A. Some types of mental disorders
1. Major Depressive Disorder
a. Symptoms
I. Emotional overwhelming sadness, hopelessness, irritability, loss of
interest and pleasure
II. Behavioral crying, withdrawing
III. Cognitive thought processes slowed, difficulty concentrating,
IV. Physical very low energy, restlessness, changes in eating or sleeping
V. Symptoms last at least 2 weeks
2. Bipolar Disorder (formerly manic depression)
a. Mania = very elevated mood and behavior
I. Inflated self-esteem
II. Decreased need for sleep
III. Rapid speech, thoughts
IV. Irritability
V. Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities
3. Anxiety Disorders
a. Specific Phobia
I. Persistent fear of a specific object or situation
II. Example: spiders, tight spaces
b. Social Anxiety Disorder
I. Fear of negative evaluation from others
II. Out of proportion
III. 6 months or longer
c. Panic Disorder
I. Repeated attacks "out of the blue."
II. Pounding heart, sweating, nausea, etc.
III. Subsides after ~10 minutes
IV. Can be accompanied by agoraphobia (fear of being in open, public
d. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
I. Excessive apprehension nearly all the time
II. Not about a particular object or situation
III. Disrupts life
e. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
I. Intrusive memories of trauma
II. Avoidance of reminders of trauma
III. Increased physical arousal (easily startled, nightmares, etc.)
f. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
I. Repetitive thoughts (obsessions)
II. Repetitive behaviors (compulsions)
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