BIOL 212 Lecture Notes - Lecture 30: Adaptive Immune System, Malignancy, Synthetic Biology

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6 Sep 2016
Department
Course
Nervous System
Nervous system functions
Sensory inputs (light, smell, touch, etc.)
Motor responses (reflexive, voluntary)
Autonomic functions (heartbeat, digestion, blood pressure, etc)
oImportant for homeostasis
Learning & cognition
Central nervous system:
-brain and nerve cord (spinal cord in vertebrates)
Peripheral Nervous System:
-all neurons and their projections that are outside the CNS
All chordates have CNS and PNS
Nervous system- information collection, processing and responses
Sensory inputs from PNS and CNS (sight, odor and taste)
Information processing by CNS (thinking of yummy food)
Commands from CNS and PNS control body activities (salvation)
Central Nervous System (Information Processing)
Afferent division- transmits sensory info (sensory neurons) To central nervous
system
Efferent division- transmits motor information (motor neurons) Away from CNS
-Somatic nervous system (voluntary response)
-Autonomic nervous system (involuntary response; controlling blood
pressure, etc.)
oParasympathetic division (don’t worry about)
oSympathetic division(don’t worry about)
Efferent (Motor) Systems
1. Somatic nervous system
a. Voluntary responses
a.i. Sensory neurons receive external stimuli
a.i.1. Heat, vision, smell, taste, hearing touch
a.ii. Motor neurons control skeletal muscles
2. Autonomic nervous system
a. Involuntary- usually cannot be consciously controlled
b. Regulates homeostasis
b.i. Sensory neurons detect internal body conditions
b.ii. Motor neurons control organ functions
Cerebrum- conscious thought; memory
Cerebellum- coordination of complex motor patterns
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Brain Stem- information relay; autonomic control of heart, lungs, and digestive
system
Cerebral Cortex
-Surface layer of the cerebrum
-Integrates information from other nervous system inputs and creates
appropriate outgoing signals
-Evolutionary development related to cognitive ability
-Highly developed in humans
Size of cerebrum and surface area (convolutions) of cerebral cortex increased with
more advanced cognitive ability
Rat< rabbit< cat<sheep<dolphin<chimpanzee<human
Which of the following is most highly developed in human brains compared to other
mammals?
1. Cerebral cortex
2. Gluteus Maximus
3. Medulla oblongata
4. Midbrain
5. Parasympathetic system
Cells of the central nervous system
-Neurons
oCells that send and receive electrical and chemical signals to and from
other neurons or other cells throughout the body
-Glia (many types)
oInclude neural stem cells
oForm myelin sheath on neurons (Schwan cells)
April 4th
Cell-to-cell interaction (Essner)
Cells of the nervous system
Neurons
oCells that send and receive electrical and chemical signals to and from
other neurons or other cells throughout the body
Glia
oInclude neural stem cells
oForm myelin sheath on neurons (Schwan cells)
Neuron Structure (Fig 41.2)
Cell body
oContains nucleus and organelles
Dendrites
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oExtensions of plasma membrane
oIncoming Signals
Axons
oExtension of plasma membrane
oSending signals
oAxon terminals convey electrical or chemical messages to other cells
oMyelin sheath insulates axon
Dendrites Cell body  Axon 
Functional classes of neurons
Sensory neurons
oDetect information from external environment or internal body
conditions
oAfferent neurons- transmit signals to CNS
Motor neurons
oEfferent neurons- send signals away from CNS to elicit response
Interneurons
oInformation processing in the CNS
Neural Signaling
Electrical
Chemical
Electrical Properties
Membrane potential
oPolarized- difference in electrical charge inside and outside the cell
Ion concentrations difference between the inside and outside
of the cell
Combined effects of electrical and chemical gradients
oPlasma membrane barrier separating charges
Impermeability to charged ions is key
Resting membrane potential
oWhen neurons not sending signals
o~-70mV
Na+, K+, and Cl- are the primary ions that generate resting potential
Na+ and Cl- higher concentration outside the cell
K+ higher concentration inside the cell
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