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(2/7/17)
Average cost of raising a child in a middle-class family from birth-17 years of age
$245,000 middle income family
Physical Development
Newborn:
o Average: 20 inches long; 7 ½ pounds
Birth weight = decreasing in the U.S.
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Double birth weight by 4 months; triple by first birthday
Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the first year = 20lbs; 30in.
Largest baby every born (on record)
Canada in 1879: weight 23lbs, 12oz
Infant Physical Development
At 2 years = approximately 26 to 32lbs
At 2 years, 32 to 35in tall
o Nearly half of their eventual adult height
Able to move and explore their world
o More independence
Increase motor skills
o Improving balance and coordination
Increase language skills, develop talking muscles
Physical Growth
Directionality how the body proportions change
o “head to toe” (Cephalocaudal)
o center of body outward (Proximodistal)
Canalization = “catch up”
o Development tends to follow and return to a normative course
Brain Plasticity
Brain’s structure and function are plastic = can be changed by experience
Reflexes
Reflex simple, involuntary response to certain stimuli
Motor Skills
Differentiation
o General to specific motor (muscle) control
o Progression from gross, immature movement to well-controlled, intentional,
precise movement
As motor systems develop, infants acquire the ability to move about and manipulate objects
Finer motor = writing
Gross motor = walking
Autism Spectrum Disorder difficulty in expressing needs and inability to socialize;
movement disorders
o 1 in 150 American children
o Cause is unknown
o Cannot be diagnosed = 3yrs old
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