SOC 134 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Class Stratification, Peace Movement, Resource Mobilization

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Exam #3 Notes
Start: 10/31/16
Rationality, Bureaucracy & Mcdonaldization 10/31
Rationality
-Sociologists view rationality as a social construction
*What is atioal is’t ostat
*Different communities have different standards of rationality
* A rational behavior or statement is one that makes sense in community
Max Weber & Rationality
-Early sociologists were interested in how to modern world was different from the premodern
world
-Max Weber believed the most important development in the modern world was a change in
rationality-the growing importance of formal rationality
Value Rationality: Involves commitment to a binding conviction
*Value rationality is dominant in tradition, religion and ritual
Formal rationality
-Weber believed the modern world was characterized by formal rationality
Formal rationality: Involves cost-benefit analysis (instrumentality, calculability)
*Weber believed the bureaucracy was the model of rationalization
Bureaucracy: Hierarchical organization governed by formal rules and regulations and having
clearly specified work tasks
A non-bureaucratic organization
What does it look like?
-Gypsum plant described by Alvin Gouldner (1950)
*Half of workers related to other workers
*Little paperwork; things handled on case-to-case basis
*Workers used plant materials and services
*Workers were happy, but customers and company managers were not
Elements of Bureaucracy
Impersonality: Decision-making criteria that ignore personal characteristics not related
organizational goals
Written rules & documents: like procedural rules, contracts, position descriptions, written
evaluations and job files
Separation of person and position: Resources of each position are to be used only for official
purposes; positions require full capacity of office holder
Specialization: Organizational positions are assigned based on special skills and training
Hierarchy of offices: Ranking of positions so that lower positions report to higher ones
Extending Bureaucracy
McDonaldization: The poess  hih the piiples of the fast-food restaurant are coming
to doiate oe ad oe setos of Aeia soiet as ell as the est of the old
1. Efficiency
Efficiency: the search for the optimum means to a given end
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*Streamlining processes
*Simplifying goods and services
*Using customers to perform work
2. Calculability
Calculability: Emphasis on this that can be calculated, counted, and quantified
3. Predictability
Predictability: Emphasis on things being the same from one time or place to another
*offering uniform products
*replications of settings
*Scripting of employee behaviors
4. Control
Control (of people) through replacement of human with nonhuman technology
*Machines
*Architecture/interior design
*Limited options
The Demographic Transition and Missing Girls 11/2
Demography
Demography: The study of human population
*Three major components
Fertility: The iidee of hild eaig i a egio’s populatio
Mortality: The iidee of death i a egio’s populatio
Migration: The movement of people into and out of a region
Malthusian Theory
-Thomas Malthus was an early proponent of the claim that growing world population would
end in disaster
-The fous of oe is’t alas o food: oepopulatio a theate the eioent and
political stability
Demographic transition theory
Demographic transition: Stage of societal development in less-developed countries marked by
growing life expectancy and high birthrates.
Four stages of this theory:
1. Slow growth because of very high birth and death rates
2. Rapid growth because death rate drops, but birth rate remains high
3. Slow growth because birth rate drops to approach death rate
4. Zero population growth (ZPG)
Consequences?
-Most worldwide pop growth happened in past 200 years
-World pop growth may stabilize
-Almost all pop growth that will take place will be in less developed countries
Sex Ratios
-The natural sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approx. 105 males to 100 females
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