GEOL 1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Continental Crust, Atomic Mass, Atomic Number

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Published on 19 Oct 2020
Jeff Koo
Geol 1
Physical Geology
Spring 2019
4 Units
Basics of chemistry pg.32
- Element: is defined by the number of protons in its nucleus. A substance that cannot be
broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical or physical means
- Atoms: the smallest, electrically neutral piece of matter that retains the properties of an
- Nucleus
o Protons
o Neurons
- Electron
Tightly packed body composed of:
Protons: have mass and a positive charge
Neutrons: have mass and no charge
Electrons (-): have essentially no mass, and a negative charge- they also move in directions that
allow them to balance out, or neutralize their charges. Electrons charges are neutralized as the
electrons crowd in around a central core of positively charged protons.
Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom.
Atomic mass number: the total number of neutrons and protons in an atom.
Atoms: number of e in outer shell determines chemical behavior
Chemical reactions
-chemical reactions involve: loss or gain, sharing of e-
Positive and negative charges: of cations (+) and anions (-) must cancel out fo elements to
combine to form minerals
A mineral is a pg. 30
1) Naturally occurring
2) Inorganic solid
3) Chemical composition
4) Uniform atomic structure made up of elements
The 8 most common elements in the earth’s crust
Eight elements make up more than 98% of the continental crust
- Oxygen
- Aluminum
- Calcium
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