PSY-P 101 Lecture 15: P101 Lecture 15-16 Notes (Mar. 2, Mar. 7)

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
PSY-P 101
Motz Benjamin

P101 Lecture 15 Notes- Consciousness (cont.) 3-2-17  Review: o Consciousness and Attention  Attention being drawn vs. selective attention  Pop-out effect o Role of attention in memory/learning o Dichotic listening task  Cocktail party effect  Treisman’s ear switching study o Spotlight metaphor o Automaticity  Exp. Whodunnit? Video (in-class experiment) o Murder mystery; 21 details changed during video o Most people didn’t notice more than a few o Weren’t attending to details of video; they weren’t in our spotlights, no reason to assume they would change o After being told, we had different expectations and noticed more (still not all) changes o Known as inattentional blindness- we are largely inattentive to our surroundings  Visual neglect- brain disorder caused by damage; tendency to ignore things on one side of body (usually left) o Can predict that damage usually in right hemisphere (parietal lobe)  Parallel processing damaged; can’t take in lots of things at once o Left hemisphere damage causes problems paying attention to details (serial processing) o Not visual problem- has to do with attention  May also not notice other sensory things (ie. left pant leg being wet)  Can force yourself to remember to pay attention o Symptoms:  Reading only 1 side of a page  Dressing one side of body  Shaving one half of face o Exp. Asked to copy an image shown  Mostly focused on right side  For clock, no numbers on left side  For cat, might have whole head but no left legs o Exp. Subjects shown pictures of houses, asked to decide which one they would buy  For picture with porch on right side, would notice that  For picture with fire in left window and porch on right side, would still notice porch  Gave same description of each house; in forced choice of which to buy, overwhelmingly choose house not on fire, even though they don’t notice it  Something still influences decisions, like blindsight; correct more than could be attributed to chance  Consciousness and Sleep o Biological rhythms- any cyclical function in body; applies to many functions  Ex. Menstrual cycle  Ex. Life cycle itself (lifespan); repeats with each generation  Circadian rhythms- any cycle that works on 24-hour period  Ex. Regular daily transition from waking to sleep  Controlled by body, often hormonal system o Biological clocks- structures that control biological rhythms  For circadian rhythm: suprachiasmatic nucleus  Chiasmatic → near optic chiasm; supra → above  Nucleus that sits above optic chiasm; has direct access to how body perceives light (natural light changes on 24-hour cycle)  Synchronizes circadian rhythms as light changes so we sleep at night  Having a regular, structured environment (esp. with light) crucial to having structural circadian rhythm  Being on cell phone at night causes light to be perceived by suprachiasmatic nucleus, making it harder to sleep o EEG Patterns of Sleep Stages and Wakefulness  Looking at physiological behaviors (how body changes during sleep)  Can measure brain activity while someone sleeps- do not need them to do anything active  Distinct patterns emerge depending on which stage of sleep someone is in  Stages of Sleep  Awake- fast and random o No particular sense, brain firing constantly  Drowsy- slight change in amplitude of waves o Still fast, but in alpha band of frequency  NonREM 1- light sleep; person may claim to still be awake, but is asleep o Waves in theta frequency  NonREM 2- person definitely asleep, but may respond to some events, like noises o Sleep spindles- fast bunches of regular activity o K complexes- large amplitude waves  NonREM 3- slow-wave (very deep) sleep; nonresponsive to most stimuli, slow to wake up o Delta activity/frequency- slow, high amplitude o Known as “physical repair state”- clearing out toxins, muscles recovering, etc.  REM (rapid eye movement) sleep- waves resemble waking state o Physiological changes- increased heart rate, darting eyes, twitching o Occurs in all mammals and birds of prey o Theory- “exercising eyes” to be able to track moving things o Known as “mental repair state” o Sleep Cycles  4-5 per night; about 90 min per cycle  Each cycle has slightly less time in stage 3 (deep sleep) and more in REM sleep; each still lasts ~90 minutes, but distribution of stages changes over sleep cycle o Sleep Deprivation  Exp. High school student Randy Gardner  Stayed awake for 11 days for science fair project  2 friends slept over, 1 stayed up in shifts to make him stay awake (no stimulants used)  Exp. DJs Tom Rounds and Peter Tripp (1963)  Decided to deprive themselves of sleep for ~11 days  Wanted p
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