JUST 223 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: De Jure

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10 Apr 2018
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Oppression at the Individual, Institutional, and Cultural Levels
Individual-level oppression: Individual attitudes and behaviors that directly harm other
individuals and therefore contribute to the system of oppression (privilege for dominant
groups, disadvantages for subordinated groups).
Institutional-level oppression: Policies and laws that contribute to the system of oppression
(privilege for dominant groups, disadvantage for subordinated groups).
Sometimes the policy or law does this by design (de jure by how the law or policy is
written); sometimes the policy or law does this in its effects/outcomes or how it is applied or
enforced (de facto).
Cultural-level oppression: Widely-shared beliefs, norms, and “stories” that are part of the
dominant culture of a society/social context. These are used by those who believe or invoke
them to justify the system of oppression (privilege for dominant groups, disadvantages for
subordinated groups).
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