PSYC 4430 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Histrionic Personality Disorder, Paranoid Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder

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10 Jun 2018
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Chapter 11: Personality Disorders
1. Overview
a. Nature of personality disorders
i. Enduring, inflexible predisposition
ii. Maladaptive and causes distress and/or impairment
iii. High rates of comorbidity
iv. Poor prognosis
v. Ego-synotic
1. Feels osistet ith a patiet’s identity unlike other disorders
it’s oral to the
2. Many of them of NOT feel treatment is necessary
b. Categorical and dimensional models
i. Kind vs. degree
1. Past theories assigned personality disorders to all or nothing
categories—ou either hae it or ou do’t
2. Categorical diagnoses still exist in DSM-5, but there is not the
addition of the dimensional model of personality disorders
a. Dimensional model: individuals are treated based on the
degree of various personality traits they exhibit
3. You can have a combination of disorders rather than just one
2. Facts and statistics
a. Prevalence of personality disorders
i. Affects approximately 1% of the general population
b. Origins and course of personality disorder
i. Begins in childhood
ii. Runs a chronic course if untreated
1. Could potentially transform into a different personality disorder
c. Gender & gender bias in diagnoses
i. Antisocial personality disorder is identified more in males and more
females are labeled with histrionic personality disorder
d. Comorbidity is the rule, not the exception
e. Currently under study
i. Sadisticlike to inflict pain
ii. Passive-aggressive: defiant, undermine authority
iii. Further research needed to consider these to be disordered
3. 3 clusters for personality disorders
a. Cluster Aodd, eccentric
i. Paranoid personality disorder
1. Overview and clinical features
a. Mistrust and suspicion of others that is unjustified and
pervasive
b. Mistrust leads them to not confide in anyone and they
tend to expect that others want to harm them
2. Causes
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a. Researchers are unsure as to how biology and psychology
contribute
b. One idea: taught early in life that there is danger in other
people and the world
3. Treatment options
a. Many do not seek professional help without the
intervention of a third party (e.g. family or friends)
b. The focus of treatment is in building trust
c. CBT counters negative thinking
d. Lack of good outcome studies
ii. Schizoid personality disorder
1. Overview and clinical features
a. Detachment in social relationships remains a pervasive
pattern
b. Experience only a limited range of emotions in
interpersonal situations
c. People would describe them as cold, aloof, indifferent
2. Causes
a. Unclear of etiology
b. Childhood shyness may be a determinant
c. Similar to autism in the way that the individual prefers
social isolation
3. Treatment options
a. Many do not seek professional help without the
intervention of a third party like friends or family
b. Therapy focuses on helping them find the value in having
interpersonal relationships
c. Developing empathy and social skills is a particular focus
d. Lack of good outcomes from therapy
iii. Schizotypal personality disorders
1. Overview and clinical features
a. Their behavior and what they wear would be considered
odd and unusual (e.g. rain boots and a bikini)
b. Being highly suspicious leads them to be socially isolated
c. Experience magical thinking (believing weird things), ideas
of reference (everything one sees in the world relates to
oe’s desti, ad illusios ot i this orld
d. Have odd beliefs about the world
e. Many with this disorder also meet the criteria for major
depression
f. Some consider this to resemble a milder form of
schizophrenia
2. Causes
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