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Lecture 1

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Ph, Cell Nucleus, Motor Protein

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201

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Atomic Number- number of protons
Atomic Mass-number of protons and neutrons
Protons and Neutrons weigh 1 Dalton
1 Dalton is 1.67x10^-24 grams
Scientific Method
Observation---Generalization or model---Predictions/Hypothesis---Test
Any scientific process starts with our ability to make observations. Subsequently, we can
only test phenomenon that are observable
As a result of the scientific method our model/generalization gets better. It becomes
more active because we change it to agree with our data.
Scientific research changes when new tech is available
There is no scientific model that is perfect. We have theories and think we are close to
100% but in truth no model will ever be 100% perfect and right.
-Hypothesis- An idea with little validity
-Theory- An idea with support and evidence
-Law- Proved ideas, but with biology there are still some exceptions/nothing is ever
-A hypothesis is something with little validity. We have only tested it a little bit but after
more testing and more evidence it becomes a theory. A theory is not just any idea it is
an idea with support. After more support and more understanding where something is
completely supported and practically "proved." It becomes a law.
What is Biology?
-The study of life
What is life?
-No singular definition of life but there are characteristics of life such as reproduction,
response to the environment, evolution/adaptation, must have at least one cell, growth
and development, etc.
-None of these things singularly are diagnostic for what it means to be alive. There are
nonliving things that do them individually, life however does them all.
Characteristics of Living Systems
-Energy Use** -living systems consume huge amounts of energy just to keep them
organized in that state they are in. Just to maintain them
-Respond to the Environment**
Ex. Viruses are not alive. They are highly organized but use no energy. They evolve and
respond to the environment but they don't reproduce without help from a living cell.
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They may use about half of the characteristics but they don't use them all so they are
not alive. You also cannot "kill" a virus. With a bacteria you would take antibiotics to
starve it of energy. You cannot do this with a virus because they use no energy.
What Determines Solubility?
*Like dissolves Like
-Like in terms of polarity -Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents and non-polar solutes
dissolve in non-polar solvents
What Determines Polarity?
Things to understand first
-Smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means and the smallest unit of
matter that retains all of the properties of that element
-Fundamental unit of matter
-The number of electrons that need to be gained or lost to fill the outer shell of
-Will describe why elements behave the way they do
-Valence also predicts the number of bonds that an atom will form
-Valence electrons -the electrons in the outermost shell
**Topics we will cover in 1201
Polarity is determined by the type of bonds within a molecule
Chemical Bonds
-Form when atoms gain and lose or share electrons
-They are the result of electrical attractions between atoms
Ionic Bonds
-Form when atoms completely gain and lose electrons
-Strongest bonds when dry
Covalent Bonds
-Form when atoms share electrons
-If shared equally: Non-Polar Covalent
-If shared unequally: Polar Covalent
-Strongest bond in water
What determines the number and type of chemical bonds?
-Type=Electronegativity (Tug of war with electrons)
-Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of
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