Chapter 2: the court system: jurisdiction in latin, juris means law and diction means to speak . It also has appellate authority over cases involving federal questions that have been decided in the state courts. The rule of four: appellate courts an appellate court panel of three or more judges reviews the record of the case on appeal, which includes a transcript of the trial proceedings. It means that the party that filed the action in court has a legally protected interest at stake in the litigation: standing can be broken down into three elements, harm. The party bringing the action must have suffered or will imminently suffer harm-an invasion of a legally protected interest. The controversy must be real and substantial rather than hypothetical: causation. There must be a causal connection between the conduct complained of and the injury: remedy.