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Lecture 1

HIST 2055 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Underground Railroad, Thurgood Marshall, Monroe Doctrine

Course Code
HIST 2055

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History 2055 Class Notes: Test 2
October 8, 2015
Post-Revolutionary Concerns:
Articles of Confederation/Confederation Congress
The first federal constitution, came out of the Constitutional Convention in Virginia
Took 3 and a ½ years to adopt the Articles of Confederation while war was going on, in favor of
the states; national government did not have a right to tax and the state managed their own
taxes and people
National government was a single legislature
Each state had equal representation
Ineffective at uniting the states, independent of one another after the war and guarded their
own states and independence
Federal Government the sharing of government between the national center and the states
Sharing of power between center and periphery (Federal and State government)
Land speculation and state rivalries
States refused to give up lands that they claimed to the government, made money by selling
land not owned by the state but released to national government; actually competed for the
same land in the same states
States finally agreed to give up unpopulated western territories to federal government uniting
of state and federal
State rivalries receded upon the agreement that the national government disposed of lands on
the western frontier
Shays Rebellion, 1786
Prompted elites to come together in an effort to create a stronger federal government,
members consisted of demoralized citizens
States had exchange rates for neighboring states no general, hard currency
Protested Massachusetts State Legislature for rates of taxes, demanding rights and a fair
distribution of wealth; shut down the court and took up arms, government pardoned those
involved in War
Rebellion brought the attention to other states; created a system of law and order
System of defining statehood was created
Constitutional Convention
Virginia Plan v. New Jersey Plan
James Madison introduced the concept of big states v. small states
Virginia Plan: reserve power of larger states, based on population and collected wealth
New Jersey Plan: counter proposal, equal number of representatives for ever state protecting
the rights of small states
Proportion in House, Equality in Senate
Convention had to be presented (3/4 had to agree) in every state before implication was
Government relied on laws to regulate human passions; Shays Rebellion was a demonstration
of human passion and determined that laws must be placed to regulate
Politics considered a moral science, laws defined the health of society
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History 2055 Class Notes: Test 2
3/5 Clause landowning south felt that they would be squeezed out and determined that each
slave counted as 3/5 of a person in order to boost population and therefore inflated their
representation in Congress
Meaig of federal
Ratification of the states (1788)
Whither a Bill of Rights
The right to bear arms (war equipment) meant something different than today then: wage war and
also allow people to own guns in the event of war, now: possess guns in general
18th Century Meaning - (1) organizing a militia to resist British tyranny, (2) opposition to permanent
national standing army
Modern Meaning a idiidual’s right to self-defense
MOST recent federal infringement of personal freedom
October 13, 2015
Our First President and US Congress:
James Madison invented the Cabinet, from Virginia
Madison was Washigto’s losest ofidat; either ke that the Costitutio ould ake suh a
large impact on the future of America no consideration of political parties, and luckily came from and
carried the same political views (Madison was runner up to president became Vice President)
Jefferson called oorats – those willing to continue monarchy
Two Parties: Federalists & Republicans
Hamilton wanted to bring together the wealthiest people in the country to invest in the government to
make it as stable as possible, and therefore the wealthiest had the most pull in the government
essentially against Democracy
For the 1st 50 years of government Attorney General was the most involved legal advisor; shows how
intimate the government was
Washington called the goeret a eperiet ad did’t ee eliee it ould still e i tat -15
years later, yet it continues now
Madison and Jefferson divided from the Federalist idea, believed the Constitution protected the
interest of the people and Federalists aimed to strengthen the government and not the voice of the
As long as the individual owned property and paid taxes had a stake in the US voting was open and
a right
John Jay American negotiator who signed the Treaty of Paris, teamed up with Hamilton and Madison
to write the Federalist Papers, named by Washington as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1st one)
The Bill of Rights was not as supported as expected, nor the Constitution
Philip Freneau was a classmate of James Madison at Princeton, when Madison began agitating
agaist adiistratio eause of Madiso’s ifluee i Washigto, Hailto stepped i ad
Cabinet became divided, Jefferson retired from government but Madison never gave up, Freneau
published the National Gazette (an opposition newspaper) newspapers became divided and political
opposition took over America
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History 2055 Class Notes: Test 2
Anglo French War:
England and France went to war again
Federalists became fearful of French influence on American politics, people demonstrated in the
streets criticizing government and their country was just beginning
Madison and Jefferson said patience was necessary as we have an alliance with the French and the
British are preventing America from trading and developing, essentially bullying America on the seas;
afraid of a retreat from independence
The Washington Administration was 2 years old and already in opposition due to political party
separation; Hamilton confronts Jefferson
Hailto is raidig Jefferso’s authorit ad supports those to go to Eglad ad promote pro-British
life, essentially degrading everything that America and its supporters worked for
Hamilton was a hero at the Battle of Yorktown, Madison and Jefferson were never military leaders,
Hailto’s puli iage as stroger
Hamilton gets away with degrading other public figures including Adams, Jefferson and Madison, truly
came from nothing but because of his confidence and determination to be in charge and be a leader he
went far politically either loathed or loved him
Hamilton married the richest woman in New York state, brought his name to the surface and was from
then on able to make himself known
Hamilton began calling the shots
National Bank
One currency, wealthy who owned government IOUs would be paid back in full and allow Hamilton,
Secretary of Treasury would maintain the money, keeping it in private hands; 4/5 of the trustees of the
Bank were owners government funds were then in the hands of private bankers
Those who mattered were pro-government
Whiskey Rebellion:
Washigto, listeig to Hailto’s paraoia of a Reellio lauhed a ilitar epeditio
Spirit of the Party:
Term used in protest was Party Spirit/Spirit of Party factionalism, party identity; considered a bad
thing because of fear that those who maintained a party would be willing to tear down another side to
make their side known to government, scared of internal divide
Jay Treaty:
British capture and attack American vessels, America has no power to stop them
British justification was that Britain was at war and because America could potentially be trading with
their enemy, Britain has the right to stop American ships and take their cargo
America has little ability to trade with West Indies
Americans went back to bold street activity of pre-Revolutionary Era
Election of 1796:
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