Pet Birds Nutrition
1- Understanding bird’s nature
2- Pet birds nutritional requirements
3- Choosing the Right Diet
4- Hand feeding of newly hatched birds!
5- Falconry and birds of prey
Anatomy and physiology of Digestive system;
1. Beak; Birds have no TEETH
a. Beak is a hard, tough epidermal structure (keratin= the same tough, insoluble
protein found in fingernails, hoofs and horns) attached to a bone base (Maxilla
= upper jaw, and Mandible = lower jaw; act as a form to produce the beak’s
b. The beak has a well developed superficial innervation originating from the
bony structure and extend through the germinal layer (contain blood and nerve
supply support beak growth and sensation)
c. Beak is constantly growing, depending upon the species, a bird's beak grows
from one to three inches a year
d. Beaks vary significantly in size, shape, color and texture, according to their
iii. Manipulating objects
iv. killing prey
vi. Probing for food
viii. Feeding young Causes of beak trimming;
1. Excessive Beak growth.
2. Abnormal brownish/ reddish spots.
3. Fissures and Cracks on the horny surface
4. Very sharp tip due to abnormal wearing.
5. Mostly due to imbalanced nutrition, liver disease or environmental problem
Once you have trimmed the beak once, you never have to do it again.
Precautions and complications
1. A very dangerous job, since most birds will try to bite you and are difficult to hold in
2. May results in severe injuries of the tongue, if one slips with nail clippers or pliers.
3. Should always protect the eyes of the bird
4. May cut through the germinal layer (exceeding the horny structure) causing terrible
pain and is in danger of bleeding to death.
Trimming the beak will not stop further growth and you will have the same problem
several weeks later
2. Tongue: Very Diverse according to the main function:
A. Food collecting: