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BS 162 (14)
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Lecture 13

BS 162 Lecture 13: Population Ecology

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Biological Science
BS 162

Terminology Ecology: ​The branch of biology that focuses on interactions between organisms and the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of the environment. Population:​ A group of individuals of a single species that: 1. Live in the same general area 2. Rely on the same resources (e.g., food, shelter) 3. Respond to similar environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, light) 4. Have a high probability of interacting and breeding with one another Population ecology​: The branch of ecology that focuses on the dynamics of populations (e.g., abundance, growth, survival) and how populations interact with living and nonliving components of the environment. Importance: 1. Population change over space and time 2. Disease transmission and spread 3. Ecological theory 4. Managing populations 5. Conserving vulnerable species Estimating Abundance and Density - Abundance = total number of individuals - Density = number of individual per unit area - Direct = count animals themselves - Indirect = count indices of relative abundance Mark-Recapture - Lincoln-Peterson model - Imagine that we capture, mark, and release animals. Then, we capture a second sample. - If the probability of capture is independent of the presence/absence of marks, then… - The proportion marked in 2nd sample = proportion marked in total population R/C = M/N - R = # marked in the 2nd sample (recaptures) - C = # Caught in the 2nd sample - M = # Marked in the first sample (population) - N = Total Number in population (what we are solving for) Importance Assumption of Method - Closed population (N is constant) - All animals have equal capture probability in each sample - Capture and marking do not affect capture probability - Each sample is random - Marks are not lost between sampling events - All marks are recorded correctly and reported on capture in the second sample Example: - We capture and mark 105 squirrels throughout campus. - In a second capture we catch 142 and 37 were already marked - R = 37; C = 142; M = 105 - Therefore, N = 403 Practice Problem: - Wildlife managers are concerned about black bear population growth. They seek to maintain a population of 5,500 bears in MI - Biologists captured and marked 598 bears in initial population sampling. They capture 740 bears in a second sampling event, for which the recapture rate was 10.95% - Did the manager achieve their population goal? - R = 81 C = 740 M = 598 - N = M* C /R = 5,463 → yes
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