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Lecture 7

WELL 175 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Thoracic Vertebrae

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WELL 175

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Chapter 5: Flexibility and Low-Back Health
I. What is Flexibility?
a. Flexibility: the ability of a joint to move through its normal range of motion
i. Flexibility is a highly adaptable fitness component and responds well
when utilized as a part of a fitness program
ii. Flexibility is joint specific, meaning that you must work all major joints,
not just a few
II. What is a Joint?
a. A joint, or an “articulation” is a point of contact between bones
i. The human body contains 178 joints
III. Types of Joints
a. First Type:
i. Allows joints considerable movement in multiple directions
1. i.e. neck and shoulder joints
b. Second Type:
i. Permits restricted or only one-directional motion
1. i.e. spinal vertebra, elbow, and knee joints
c. Third Type:
i. Completely immovable joints
1. i.e. the suture-like seams between the boney plates of the skull
2. the 9 vertebrae fused into two sections at the base of the spine
(sacrum and coccyx)
IV. Types of Stretching Techniques
a. Static Stretching
i. Slowly stretching a muscle and holding the stretched position without
joint movement for a designated amount of time
1. Most assessment tests are based on this technique
b. Dynamic Stretching/Ballistic Stretching
i. Stretching muscles & joints throughout movement such as bouncing or
swinging to engage muscles, rather than holding a stretch at a standstill
1. Used to prevent muscle strain and safely allow for swift, powerful
movement by athletes
2. Dynamic stretching is done by gently moving (stretching) muscles
towards reaching for their maximum range of motion (ROM)
c. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
i. Obtaining a greater training effect by applying a steady pressure by one
partner and resistance to that pressure by another partner to gradually
reach ROM
V. Two Methods of Stretching Techniques
a. Passive Stretching
b. Active Stretching
VI. What Determines Flexibility?
a. Joint Structure
i. Heredity plays a part in joint structure and flexibility
ii. Joint structure cannot be changed
iii. Joints vary in size, direction, & range of movement
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Chapter 5: Flexibility and Low-Back Health
b. Muscle Elasticity & Strength
i. They depend on collage and elastin
c. Nervous System Activity
i. Stretch Receptors: sense organs in skeletal muscles that initiate a nerve
signal to the spinal cord in response to a stretch
VII. Functions of Major Joint Components
a. Muscles
i. Provide movement by contracting
b. Connective Tissues
i. Provide support and structure
c. Tendons
i. Connect bones to muscles
d. Ligaments
i. Connect bones
e. Cartilage
i. Lubricates joints and cushions bones
VIII. Soft Tissues
a. Tissues of the human body that provide a myriad of functions and include:
i. Skin
ii. Fat
iii. Linings of internal organs & blood vessels
iv. Connective tissues
v. Tendons & ligaments
vi. Muscle
vii. Nerves
IX. Benefits of Flexibility
a. Maintaining joint health throughout lifespan
b. Prevention of low-back pain and injuries
c. Relief of aches and pains
d. Relief of muscle cramps
e. Improved body position and strength for sports (and life)
f. Maintenance of good posture and balance
g. Relaxation
h. Improving impaired mobility
X. Assessing Flexibility
a. In order to develop the safest and most effective stretching program, it is
necessary to be able to assess your flexibility and level of ROM
i. Most commonly used test is the sit-and-reach test
XI. Creating a Successful Program to Develop Flexibility
a. Frequency
i. Minimum 3-4 days per week
b. Intensity
i. Stretch to the point of mild discomfort, not pain
c. Time
i. Hold stretches for 15-30 seconds, and perform each stretch for 2-4 times
d. Type
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