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Lecture 18

CHEM 1100 Lecture 18: Chapter 11 Notes (Part 2)
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2 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1100
Professor
Brian Ganley

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Sweetness Scale
Fructose
Sucrose
Honey
Glucose
Maltose
Lactose
173
100
97
74.3
32.5
16
There is concern about the health impacts of the ant of sweeteners/sugars ppl consume
per day
Artificial sweeteners:
o Acesulfame potassium
o Aspartame
o Neotame
o Saccharin
o Sucralose
Food Label Requirements
FDA: must clearly identify added sugars, trans fats, and other minerals
Protein
Structural
Living cell requirements
C, H, N, O, usually S
Some DO perform chemical reactions
o Called enzymes
o Catalysts: lower activation energy of reaction
Amino acid polymers
o 2 functional groups:
Carboxylic acid (-COOH)
Amine (-NH2)
o Attached to a hydrogen and an R group (side chain)
R can be 20 diff things!!
Process
o Polymer forms: 2 amino acids link together via peptide bond = amide
CONDENSATION POLYMER
o Process repeats itself over and over until peptide chain is formed
o Once incorporated into the peptide chain, the amino acids are known as amino
acid residues
Essential Amino Acids
o Protein formed depends on
Amino acids present
Sequence of amino acid residue in peptide
o Food needs to be ingested regularly to replenish the proteins in body that are
constantly broken down and reconstructed
o Some amino acids can’t be synthesized by humans, so must ingest them in our
diets (essential amino acids)
Vitamins
Organic nutrients (contains Carbon)
Not carbs, proteins, or fats
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Description
Sweetness Scale Fructose Sucrose Honey Glucose Maltose Lactose 173 100 97 74.3 32.5 16 There is concern about the health impacts of the ant of sweeteners/sugars ppl consume per day Artificial sweeteners: o Acesulfame potassium o Aspartame o Neotame o Saccharin o Sucralose Food Label Requirements FDA: must clearly identify added sugars, trans fats, and other minerals Protein Structural Living cell requirements C, H, N, O, usually S Some DO perform chemical reactions o Called enzymes o Catalysts: lower activation energy of reaction Amino acid polymers o 2 functional groups: Carboxylic acid (-COOH) Amine (-NH2) o Attached to a hydrogen and an R group (side chain) R can be 20 diff things!! Process o Polymer forms: 2 amino acids link together via peptide bond = amide CONDENSATION POLYMER o Process repeats itself over and over until peptide chain is formed o Once incorporated into the peptide chain, the amino acids are known as amino acid residues Essential Amino Acids o Protein formed depends on Amino acids present Sequence of amino acid residue in peptide o Food needs to be ingested regularly to replenish the proteins in body that are constantly broken down and reconstructed o Some amino acids cant be synthesized by humans, so must ingest them in our diets (essential amino acids) Vitamins Organic nutrients (contains Carbon) Not carbs, proteins, or fats Body cant make them o Small amounts Often co-enzymes--makes enzymes work better Too much = BAD Vitamin Solubility o Water soluble Hydrophilic = water loving Hydrophobic = dont like water (so NOT soluble) Excreted quickly Daily o Fat soluble Stick around longer Stored Lipid family Minerals Ions or inorganic compounds essential for good health Essential Minerals: o Macrominerals: large quality (Na, Mg, K, Ca) o Microminerals: less quality (Fe, Cu, Zn) o Trace miner
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