Quality Assurance

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Food Science
F_S 1030
Clarke- Universityof Missouri- Columbia

Quality Assurance Tuesday, March 11, 2014 8:44 PM What is quality? •Consumer acceptability involves consumer preferences •Value involves price •Quality describes properties of food that can be measured by food scientists Why does anyone care? •Achieving and maintaining quality is an important function •Quality can be an absence of defects, but is more complicated because people have different expectations and tolerances Quality Characteristics •Sensory characteristics are those ones detected by the five senses o Sight, taste, touch, hearing, and smell •Hidden characteristics are those which are important to consumers but are not readily detected o Safety and nutrition Basic Sensory Quality •Flavor combines taste and smell •Color involves the sense of sight •Texture involves the sense of touch •Sound involves the sense of hearing Taste •Taste is an evaluation of flavor (2 senses involved) •Basic tastes are salty, sweet, bitter, sour, and umami •Aroma is detected through the nose (orthonasally) and the back of the mouth (retronasally) Color •Appearance is sometimes overlooked because color is not always effective for determining safety •Color is still used as a means of rejecting product due to poor quality Qualities of Food Color •Hue is the actual color (red, blue, and green) •Chroma (aka saturation) is the clarity and purity of the color •Intensity is the range of lightness to darkness of the color Texture •Another underrated characteristic but one that consumers often use as an indicator of undesirable quality •Chemical feeling factors o Pungency - onions o Heat - peppers o Cool - menthol (gum and mint) o Astringency -unripe persimmon "Heat" Substances •Capsaicin in chilies contribute a sensation of heat in many foods •Other compounds include o Gingerol in ginger o Piperine in black pepper o Isothiocyanates in mustard • Scoville heat units relate to intensity o 2,000 in low heat chilies o 70,000 in high heat chilies o 1,000,000 in capsicum oleoresin Food Texture • Texture refers to the perception of food structure when held, touched or chewed • Texture is influenced by the structure of the food and the presence of texturizing ingredients • Mouthfeel includes all the sensations in the mouth from first bite, chewing, to swallowing Measuring Quality • Many measurements, but not all, are made using instruments and are only estimates of reality • Some measurements are made using people as evaluators o Sensory analysis o Brewmaster or winemaker • Measurement terms o Accuracy is how close the estimate to the real value o Precision is how close that estimate is each time it's measured o Sensitivity is how effective the method is at detecting very small
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