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HIST 1200 (33)
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History Ch 20.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1200
Professor
Ervin
Semester
Spring

Description
History Ch 20: From Business Culture to Great Depression: The Twenties,  1920, 1932 03/03/2014 The Business of America A Decade of Prosperity Economic growth Cooperation between business and government New industries Automobile production tripled, expanded steel, rubber, and oil production By 1929, half of the American people owned a car American multinational corporations General Electric International Business Machines (IBM) American companies: 85% of the world’s cars, 40% of the world’s goods A New Society Consumer Goods Marketing and advertising Products met needs and satisfied desires Changed everyday life Vacations, movies, sporting events New celebrity culture, rise of Hollywood The Limits of Prosperity Signs of future economic trouble Economic concentration (in corporate sector) 1929, 40% lived in poverty 1929, most families had no savings 5% drop in manufacturing workings Deindustrialization The Image of Business Prominent businesspeople were cultural heroes Numerous firms established public relations departments Counteract public’s distrust of big business Changed popular attitudes toward Wall Street Rise of the stock market By 1928, 1.5 million Americans own stock The Decline of Labor “Welfare capitalism” The American Plan “Open shop” – workplace free from government intervention/regulation or union regulation Union membership declined The Equal Rights Amendment Suffrage in 1920 saw splintering between activists Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) – supported by Alice Paul Elimination of all legal distinctions based around sex What is freedom for women? Maternalism vs. individual and economic autonomy Women’s Freedom Female liberation as a lifestyle The flapper Female freedom as marketing tool New freedom for women stopped at marriage Business and Government The Retreat from Progressivism Leisure and consumption replaced politics Drop in voter turnout Shift from public to private concerns Middletown  by Robert and Helen Lynd (1929) The Republican Era Government policies were pro­business Lower taxes Higher tariffs Anti­unionism Conservative Supreme Court Laissez­Faire approach Corruption in Government Harding administration Teapot Dome scandal The Election of 1924 Calvin Coolidge Robert La Follette, Progressive candidate (1/6 of vote) Economic Diplomacy Retreat from Wilson’s internationalism: isolationism Unilateralism Increase exports and overseas investments U.S. remained outside League of Nations American tariffs raised to highest levels Foreign policy Loans to European & Latin American governments American industrial firms­overseas plants American investors controlled raw materials in Latin America The Birth of Civil Liberties New appreciation and legal protection for freedom of speech Wartime repression A “Clear and Present Danger” ACLU, est. 1920 “rights revolution” Schenck v. United States 1919, Supreme Court upholds the espionage act constitutionality The Supreme Court and Civil Liberties Oliver Wendell Holmes & Louis Brandeis Involved political and literary expression Start of a judicial defense of civil liberties The Culture Wars Challenging Modern, Secular Culture Evangelical Protestants Felt threatened by decline of traditional values Worried about visibility of Catholicism and Judaism Christian fundamentalism: Bible’s literal truth as the basis of Christianity Billy Sunday, well known Fundamentalist Christian Fundamentalists supported
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