GEOL-103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Vikings, Nansen Bottle, Sustainable Fishery

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29 Apr 2019
1/24/19 Geol-103 Notes
Polynesia- Pacific islanders’ area of colonization was large ~2500BC, 1500BC=widespread
How does one navigate?
follow coastline- stay in sight of land
map places and general direction
during day: use sun/time of day
during night: use stars
o star position is not constant (except for N star)
Increase latitude=increase angle
In open ocean- need to know latitude (H) and longitude (V)
keeping time is very important
Pacific islanders
used star compass and stick navigational charts
knowing accurate position of stars helps locate ships position
height of north star relative to horizon gives latitude (N hemisphere)
Middle Ages (500AD-1500AD)
used sextant to determine latitude
longitude=more complicated
used primitive clocks to determine longitude (knowing time=key)
Ocean Knowledge
Ancient Greeks
o Aristotle: oceans filled lowest spots on earth
knew sun evaporated water which returned as rain
collected marine organisms
o Eratosthenes: calculated circumference of Earth ~40,000km, close to accurate value
o Pliny the elder: noted relationship b/t tides and moon
o Ptolemy: produced first world atlas but world was too small on it
The vikings (800AD-1000AD)-good at ships
o advances made in shipbuilding and navidation
o extensive voyages for trade, exploration, plunder even to north america
o went as far east as Russia
Chinese (1405-1433)
large fleet
invented compass- constant measurement
“reverse tribute”- display wealth and power of Ming Dynasty and to show kindness to people of distant
Magnetic Field
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