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Lecture 14

GN 301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Combined Dna Index System, Kary Mullis, Microsatellite


Department
Genetics
Course Code
GN 301
Professor
Marian- Elizabeth B.Gardner
Lecture
14

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3.4 DNA
Thursday, October 26, 2017
10:16 AM
Polymerase Chain Reaction
o Kary Mullis developed process
o Thermal Cycler alters temperature to carry out all steps of PCR
o Process
i. Denature DNA by heating to 95 C; strands separate
Breaks H bonds
ii. Primers anneal to identify target that will be amplified (50-65 C)
iii. Etedig: Ta polease adds ucleotides to ’ ed of pie 7 C
iv. Repeat
Electrophoresis
o Put samples in negative wells of gel
o Run current through sample and DNA moves to positive end
Small samples move faster
Short Tandem Repeats
o Different alleles of same trait have different lengths due to diff. # of repeated DNA
sequences
Useful loci for testing must be polymorphic (many forms)
o Each band is measured in bp
o Electrophoresis separates pieces
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
o Specific site in Genome where DNA base varies in at least 1% of pop.
Ex: ATGCGT in most people but 1% of population has ATGCCT
10 million in human genome
o SNPs that are close to each other are inherited together are grouped as haplotypes
500,000 haplotypes
o Gene Chips contain probes that show which SNPs are presented in a sample
o Considerations
Shows DNA sequence differences quicker than sequencing entire genome
May show that certain disorders contain the same SNPs across various individuals
Correlation is not causation
23 and me uses Gene Chips to show which SNPs are present which may indicate
disorder
Show ancestral history.
FDA approved testing for 65 genetic traits in 2016
Databases
o Kaiser Permanente
Uses genetic database and medical database to develop new treatments and improve
medical research
Members donate DNA to research
Insurance cannot access data
o FBI
Federal offendants and detained immigrants are mandated to give DNA
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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