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Lecture 21

BIOL 1115 Lecture 21: ch_21 notes

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BIOL 1115

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ch 21 Rhea Khilnani Fri Dec 09 11:53:21 PST 2016 Eukaryotic genomes Nuclear genome usually found in sets of linear chromosomes o Extra nuclear DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts o Entire nuclear genome has been sequenced for many species Eukaryotic genomes vary in size and complexity Genome size is not the same as the number of genes o Relative size of nuclear genome varies dramatically o In general, increases in the amount of DNA are correlated with increasing cell size, cell complexity and body complexity Eukaryotic genomes have respective sequences Many copies of short DNA sequences Moderately repetitive sequences Few hundred to several thousand times rRNA genes, multiple origins of replication, or role in gene transcription and translation highly repetitive sequences tens of thousands or millions of times most have no function coding regions only 2 of our genome noncoding vs coding DNA 98 of genome is noncoding Intron DNA 24 Unique noncoding DNA 15 Repetitive DNA 59 2 of genome is in coding regions Exons if structural genes Genes for reran and tRNA Human Genome Project Ofcially began October 1, 1990Largely nished by end of 2003Goals Identify all human genes Sequence entire human genome Develop technology Analyze genomes of model organisms Develop legal, ethical, and social programs addressing the result Proteomes The collection of proteins that a given cell or species makes Protein abundance The number of genes for a type of protein in the genome Amount of each protein made by a cell Ex. Liver cell vs muscle cell
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