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Lecture 21

BIOL 1115 Lecture 21: ch_21 notes

by OneClass859436 , Spring 2016
2 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1115
Professor
terrikanner
Lecture
21

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ch 21
Rhea Khilnani Fri Dec 09 11:53:21 PST 2016
Eukaryotic genomes
Nuclear genome usually found in sets of linear chromosomes o Extra nuclear DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts o Entire
nuclear genome has been sequenced for many species
Eukaryotic genomes vary in size and complexity
Genome size is not the same as the number of genes o Relative size of nuclear genome varies dramatically o In general, increases in
the amount of DNA are correlated with increasing cell size, cell complexity and body complexity
Eukaryotic genomes have respective sequences
Many copies of short DNA sequences
Moderately repetitive sequences
Few hundred to several thousand times
rRNA genes, multiple origins of replication, or role in gene transcription and translation
highly repetitive sequences
tens of thousands or millions of times
most have no function
coding regions
only 2% of our genome
noncoding vs coding DNA
98% of genome is noncoding
Intron DNA – 24%
Unique noncoding DNA- 15%
Repetitive DNA – 59%
2% of genome is in coding regions
Exons if structural genes
Genes for reran and tRNA
Human Genome Project
Officially began October 1, 1990Largely finished by end of 2003Goals • Identify all human genes • Sequence entire human genome •
Develop technology • Analyze genomes of model organisms • Develop legal, ethical, and social programs addressing the result
Proteomes
The collection of proteins that a given cell or species makes
Protein abundance
The number of genes for a type of protein in the genome
Amount of each protein made by a cell
Ex. Liver cell vs muscle cell

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Description
ch 21 Rhea Khilnani Fri Dec 09 11:53:21 PST 2016 Eukaryotic genomes Nuclear genome usually found in sets of linear chromosomes o Extra nuclear DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts o Entire nuclear genome has been sequenced for many species Eukaryotic genomes vary in size and complexity Genome size is not the same as the number of genes o Relative size of nuclear genome varies dramatically o In general, increases in the amount of DNA are correlated with increasing cell size, cell complexity and body complexity Eukaryotic genomes have respective sequences Many copies of short DNA sequences Moderately repetitive sequences Few hundred to several thousand times rRNA genes, multiple origins of replication, or role in gene transcription and translation highly repetitive sequences tens of thousands or millions of times most have no function coding regions only 2 of our genome noncoding vs coding DNA 98 of genome is noncoding Intron DNA 24 Unique noncoding DNA 15 Repetitive DNA 59 2 of genome is in coding regions Exons if structural genes Genes for reran and tRNA Human Genome Project Ofcially began October 1, 1990Largely nished by end of 2003Goals Identify all human genes Sequence entire human genome Develop technology Analyze genomes of model organisms Develop legal, ethical, and social programs addressing the result Proteomes The collection of proteins that a given cell or species makes Protein abundance The number of genes for a type of protein in the genome Amount of each protein made by a cell Ex. Liver cell vs muscle cell
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