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Lecture 41

BIOL 1115 Lecture 41: ch_41 notes

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BIOL 1115

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ch 41 Rhea Khilnani Sun Dec 11 07:33:04 PST 2016 Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord perpheral nervous system all the nerves outside of the brain or spinal cord neurons Send and receive electrical and chemical signals to effector cells Effector cells Neurons Muscles Glands Cell body or soma Contains nucleus and organelles Dendrites Extensions of cell body, single or branching Receive incoming signals Axon Extension of cell body Send signals to other cells Typically single May have branches and may be wrapped in myelin Insulator Axon hillock near cell body Site of nerve impulse generation Axon terminals convey electrical or chemical signals to other cells Typically occur in bundles called nerves Glia Surround neurons and perform numerous functions Astrocytes Metabolic support Form the blood-brain barrier Microglia Participate in immune functions Oligodendrocytes (CNS) and Schwann cells (PNS) Produce myelin sheath Sheath is interrupted by noninsulated nodes of RanvierSensory neurons Detect information from: outside world internal body Afferent neurons transmit to CNS Motor neurons Send signals away from CNS to elicit response Efferent neurons Interneurons Connectors between neurons Interpreter neurons Reflex arc Stimulus from sensory neurons sent to CNS (spinal cord); signal interpreted in spinal cord and transmitted to motor neurons to elicit response Quick and automatic response Electrical Properties of Neurons andthe Resting Membrane Potential The functions of the nervous systemsensation, integration, and responsedepend on the functions of the neurons The basis for the communication Action potential Neurons communicate because they possess an excitable membrane excitable membranes generate signals Plasma membrane Regulates what enters and exits a cell Barrier that separates c
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