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Lecture

7. Development.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1101
Professor
Halko
Semester
Fall

Description
Development   Prenatal  Development   Developmental  psychology   A  branch  of  psychology  that  studies  physical,  cognitive,  and  social   change  throughout  the  life  span   Zygote   The  fertilized  egg   Enters  a  2  week  period  of  rapid  cell  division     Develops  into  an  embryo   Embryo   The  developing  human  organism  from  2  weeks  through  2  month   Fetus   The  developing  human  organism  from  9  weeks  after  conception  to   birth   Teratogens   Agents,  such  as  chemicals  and  viruses,  that  can  reach  the  embryo  or   fetus  during  prenatal  development  and  cause  harm   Fetal  Alcohol  Syndrome  (FAS)   Physical  and  cognitive  abnormalities  in  children  caused  by  a  prenatal   woman’s  heavy  drinking  symptoms  include  disproportioned  head   Rooting  reflex   Tendency  to  open  mouth,  and  search  for  nipple  when  touched  on  the   cheek   Preferences   Human  voices  and  faces   Face-­‐like  images   Smell  and  sound  of  mother   Habituation   Decreasing  responsiveness  with  repeated  stimulation   If  something  is  new  to  a  child,  they  will  attend  to  it  for  a  longer  period   of  time   Physical  Development   Maturation   Biological  growth  processes  that  enable  orderly  changes  in  behavior   Relatively  uninfluenced  by  experience   Connectivity  between  cells  increases   Schema   A  concept  or  framework  that  organizes  and  interprets  information   Assimilation   Interpreting  one’s  new  experience  in  terms  of  one’s  existing  schemas   Accommodation   Adapting  one’s  current  understandings  (schemas)  to  incorporate  new   information   Cognition   All  the  mental  activities  associated  with  thinking,  knowing,   remembering,  and  communicating   Piaget’s  Stages  of  cognitive  development   Typical  age  range   Birth  to  nearly  two  years   Description  of  stage  -­‐  Sensorimotor   Experiencing  the  world  through  senses  and  actions   (looking,  touching,  mouthing)   Developmental  Phenomena-­‐  object   permanence   Stranger  anxiety   About  2  to  6  years   Description  of  stage  -­‐  Preoperational   Representing  things  with  words  and  images  but  lacking   logical  reasoning   Developmental  Phenomena-­‐  Pretend  play   Egocentrism   Language  development   About  7  to  11  years   Description  of  stage  -­‐  Concrete  operational   Thinking  logically  about  concrete  events;  grasping   concrete  analogies  and  performing  arithmetical   operations   Developmental  Phenomena-­‐  Conservation   Mathematical  transformations   About  12  through  adulthood   Description  of  stage  -­‐  Formal  operational   Abstract  reasoning   Developmental  Phenomena-­‐  Abstract  logic   Potential  for  moral  reasoning   Object  permanence   The  awareness  that  things  continue  to  exist  even  when  not  perceived   (Lamb  covered  by  blanket)   Baby  Mathematics   Shown  a  numerically  impossible  outcome,  infants  stare  longer   Conservation   The  principle  that  properties  such  as  mass,  volume,  and  number   remain  the  same  despite  changes  in  the  forms  of  objects   Egocentrism   The  inability  of  the  preoperational  child  to  take  another’s  point  of   view   Theory  of  mind   People’s  ideas  about  their  own  and  others’  mental  state-­‐  about  their   feelings,  perceptions,  and  thoughts,  and  the  behavior  these  might   predict   Autism   A  disorder  that  appears  in  childhood   Marked  by  deficient  communication,  social  interaction  and   understanding  of  other’s  states  of  mind   Social  Development   Stranger  anxiety   Fear  of  strangers  that  infants  commonly  display   Beginning  by  about  8  months  of  age   Attachment   An  emotional  tie  with  another  person   Shown  in  young  children  by  their  seeking  closeness  to  the  caregiver   and  displaying  distress  on  separation   Harlow’s  surrogate  mother  experiments   Monkeys  preferred  contact  with  the  comfortable  cloth  mother,  even   while  feeding  from  the  nourishing  wire  mother   Monkeys  raised  by  artificial  mothers  were  terror-­‐stricken  when   placed  in  strange  situations  without  their  surrogate  mothers   Critical  Period   An  optimal  period  shortly  after  birth  when  an  organism’s  exposure  to   certain  stimuli  or  experiences  produces  proper  development   Imprinting   The  process  by  which  certain  animals  form  attachments  during  a   critical  period  very  early  in  life   Basic  trust  (Erik  Erikson)   A  sense  that  the  world  is  predictable  and  trustworthy   Said  to  be  formed  during  infancy  by  appropriate  experiences  with   responsive  caregivers   Self-­‐Concept   A  sense  of  one’s  iden
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