aparecerá el título del documento como: ACC 261 Clase 11: Einstein Biografía

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11 Feb 2017
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Einstein Biography:
"That is true, even when nobody has yet succeeded in being somebody else."
Albert Einstein, 1947
EINSTEIN
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, the first child of the Jewish couple Hermann
and Pauline Einstein, née Koch. In June 1880 the family moved to Munich where Hermann
Einstein and his brother Jakob founded the electrical engineering company Einstein & Cie.
Albert Einstein's sister Maria, called Maja, was born on November 18, 1881. Einstein's
childhood was a normal one, except that to his family's irritation, he learnt to speak at a late
age. Beginning in 1884 he received private education in order to get prepared for school. 1885
he started learning to play violin. Beginning in 1885 he received his primary education at a
Catholic school in Munich (Petersschule); in 1888 he changed over to the Luitpold-Gymnasium,
also in Munich. However, as this education was not to his liking and, in addition, he did not get
along with his form-master he left this school in 1894 without a degree and joined his family in
Italy where they had settled meanwhile.
In order to be admitted to study at the "Eidgenoessische Polytechnische Schule" (later renamed
ETH) in Zurich, Einstein took his entrance examination in October 1895. However, some of his
results were insufficient and, following the advice of the rector, he attended the "Kantonsschule"
in the town of Aarau in order to improve his knowledge. In early October 1896 he received his
school-leaving certificate and shortly thereafter enrolled at the Eidgenoessische Polytechnische
Schule with the goal of becoming a teacher in Mathematics and Physics. Einstein, being an
average student, finished his studies with a diploma degree in July 1900. He then applied,
without success, for assistantships at the Polytechnische Schule and other universities.
Meanwhile he had abandoned the German citizenship and formally applied for the Swiss one
which he was granted on February 21, 1901.
1 Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, ca. 1905
Search for employment continued. Between May 1901 and January 1902 he was teacher in
Winterthur and Schaffhausen. Afterwards he moved to the Swiss capital Bern. In order to make
his living, he gave private lessons in mathematics and physics. At this time also the Bernese
"Akademie Olympia" was founded by Albert Einstein, Maurice Solovine and Conrad Habicht.
During meetings in the evening scientific and philosophical questions were discussed. Einstein
himself noted that this academy was beneficial for his career and even when he already lived in
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the US, he remained a loyal member.
In January 1902 Lieserl, daughter of Einstein and Mileva Maric, a former fellow-student, was
born in Hungary. That Einstein had an illegitimate child has been only learned a few years ago
when private letters mentioning this child were published. Nothing is known about the life of
Einstein's daughter; probably she was released to become adopted. At the end of 1902
Einstein's father died in Milan. On January 6, 1903 he married Mileva Maric - against the wills of
both families. In May 1904 Einstein's first son, Hans Albert, was born and in July 1910 his
second son, Eduard.
Through mediation of a former fellow-student, Marcel Grossmann, in December 1901 Einstein
applied for a position at the Bernese patent-office which he was granted, initially for a time of
probation only. Beginning on June 23, 1902 he became technical expert, third class, at this
office. Despite of the work associated with this position he found time for further research in
theoretical physics.
Einstein's Dissertation:
"Eine neue Bestimmung der
Moleküldimensionen"
"A New Determination of Molecular
Dimensions"
Dedication "Meinem Freunde Herrn Dr. Marcel
Grossmann"
Bern, 30. April 1905
Published by: Buchdruckerei K. J. Wyss, Bern
(1906)
Slightly revised version published in Annalen
der Physik, Band 19 (1906), page 289 - 305
2 Cover - Einstein's Inaugural - Dissertation
In April 1905 Einstein submitted his doctoral thesis "A New Determination of Molecular
Dimensions" to the university in Zurich which was accepted in July. During this same year he
published four pioneering papers in the scientific magazine "Annalen der Physik" which
revolutionized physics around the turn of the century. Three of the papers will be briefly
mentioned here: In the first article "On A Heuristic Point of View Concerning the Production and
Transformation of Light" Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation must consist of
quantums or photons. Even though this theory is capable of explaining - among other things -
the photoelectric effect it was at first rejected by physicists, namely by the pioneer of modern
physics, Max Planck, later, however, confirmed by him and adopted. This work became the
foundation of a quantum theory and for this in particular Einstein received the Nobel Prize for
the year 1921. The paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" delineates the principles
of special relativity which deals with questions of objects as part of different coordination
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