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Cultures Contexts Islamic Societies Notes

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1  Cultures and Contexts: Islamic Societies ● Important number: 7 ● Important day: Friday ● Mysticism - conceptual; transformation to reality ● Tariqa - symbol of love, path, brotherhood, the esoteric, internal “way” ○ Nema Tullahi Midterm Review Name 5 countries on map from CP (The Peoples of Islam) (5 points) 10 Short Answer Questions, using 10 terms, requires 1 or 2 sentence answers (50 points) Choose 3 out of 5 essay questions (45 points) Each question concisely and comprehensively answered in no more than 2 paragraphs 100 points total Mecca’s location - Arabian Peninsula; major city for hijab (570) end of 6th century lucrative in frankincense and myrrh pre-Islam: period of jaheliya (ignorance) ends with Revelation of Islam (610 AD) Importance/Significance: People in 7th century were primarily pilgrims (ignorant people); Center of Caravans (from all around, Syria...) Transformation: 1. Tribal and Nomadic to settlement people in Mecca 2. Faith and Religion from idolatry to faith Islam (submission to God) - Muslims/Muhammadan but NOT followers of Muhammad Tribal attitude - Quraysh (clan) and Banuhashim, Banumaya (Umayyad establishes empire); all clans Muhammad born in 570 610 Revelation: Muhammad was 40 years old*; some people turn against him (Hadija and her caravan business) Beginning of Qur’an; approached by apparition Yathrib - Jewish and Arab tribes during agricultural transition (carry on sedentary life) city of the Prophet (change name from Yathrib to Medina “City of the Prophet”) 622 - Year 1 of Hijra, Prophet arrives in Yathrib or now known as Medina (10 days by camel); most important day in Islamic calendar; Muhammad migrates from Mecca to Medina Sep 13 and arrive Sep 24 622 Muhjerun (help people migrate to Mecca) Ansar - Muslim in Yathrib; geopolitically known; embargo blockades Badr - first battle of the Prophet; huge caravan coming from Syria; Prophet let 2  people to battle; they were victorious; appears in Koran that the people attained victory with the help of God (624) 670 - go back to Mecca Quraysh opposed Prophets (wanted to kill him) leader of clan-shaykh Farewell Pilgrimage on the way to Medina, according to Shi’s, Ali was appointed as successor (story?) Caliph* Shi’s wanted head Imam to be ruler Prayer Cali - meaning for successor Difference between Imam (infallible) and Caliph is nothing not about point at your heart, it is about the blood (importance of human blood) 1st Imam - first Prophet Alan-men of knowledge Islam Ullemah, plural of Anan and men of knowledge Companions of Prophet Shariya (Mystery) close friend of Prophets (Sata---) Shariya (mysticism) based on Koran Hadith - approval/disapproval validly/invalidly to Prophet Muhammad Koran-dictated Prayer through Almsgiving and fasting in haj (Ex: Video); Mahmood Civil War Rumi - Eastern Roman Empire (325 AD) Asia Minor established After 1207-1273 death, brothers (brotherhood-tariqa) in Backhi wrote enchanted poetry Mikra - Entrance to mosque Mantle of the Prophet - know about characteristics of Qom 1905 Constitutional Revolution from 1850’s secular education from Napoleon’s influences 1st Shah: Qajar-->Nasser al-Din Shah bastinados (beating feet with stick), riot 2nd Pahlavi Dynasty Isa Sadiq: system of Persian education 1925 3  1st Elementary schools Reza Pahlavi Shah begins Pahlavi Dynasty leads British-led coup when Iran was in pieces Qajar Dynasty overthrown 1979 Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khomeini exiled to Iraq and France; led his opposition to Pahlavi Dynasty in Qom Reza Pahlavi (Shah) overthrown (whole Pahlavi regime overthrown) Monarchy overthrown 1952 Military Coup against Prime Minister Mossadeq Nationalized oil Mossadeq overthrown SAVAK gain power with political opposition Brutal arrests and public unrest Shah was trying to force country to westernization/modernization Mohammad-Reza Shah in power (son of Reza Pahlavi Shah) CIA coup 1961 White Revolution (land reform by Reza Pahlavi Shah) Force rural populations into cities to become industrial, bureaucratic Unemployment, dissatisfaction, hunger/poverty all increase Separation between religion and state Religious persecution 5 Prayers of Ibadat (Five Pillars) Salat Pray in full prostration 5 times daily Zakat Legal Almsgiving depending on one’s wealth in order to sacrifice physical belongings Sawm Month of Ramadan when people fast from certain types of food and behavior (sex, drugs) Hajj Annual pilgrimage to Mecca; Ka’ba; undergo huge international ritual Jihad “Striving”, “exertion”, struggle of keeping to the way of Allah; Islamic duty of being a better and cleaner person Ahl-al kitab - People of the Book (non-Muslims like Jews, Christian, and Zoroastrians who had Scripture; tolerated as dhimmis by the Muslim government) Ahl-al bayt - People of the House (family of the Prophet known as the Panja (The Five): Hosain, Hasan, Ali, Fatima, and Muhammad) Westernization in Roy Mottahedeh’s Mantle of the Prophet 4  Al-e-Ahmad’s Euromania describing Westoxication Reza Khan and Mossadegh’s pressure of westernization (nationalization of oil) hay’at: migrants and citizens of the city informally meeting to touch upon similar religious beliefs and discuss ideas; martyrdom of Hosain worshipped Technology: Radio helped spread religious beliefs and lectures and Protagonist Ali Hashemi from Hashemite Clan (Muhammad’s clan) in 6th century Arabia Madreseh: School for Islamic law Avicenna: physician/philosopher; tried to define existence and essence of God (everything necessary is possible) Mysticism Within Shar’ia, circle of Batin (invisible) and outside of circle is Zahir (visible); center of circle is Tariqa (the way, brotherhood, love) Denny and CP mostly Chapter 3: Muhammad and the Early Muslim Community -570 AD: Muhammad is born -610 AD: Voice descended on Muhammad while meditating in a cave outside Mecca -Muhammad was part of the Quraysh tribe and Hashemite clan -first converted Muslim: Khadija (Muhammad’s wife with caravan business in trade) -first male Muslim convert: Ali (Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law) -Islam: act of submission to God -Muslim: one who submits to God -worship: ibadat -salat: full bodily prostration as prayer service Chapter 5: The Basic Beliefs and Worship Practices of Islam -shahada: testimony -iman: faith -The Five Doctrines of Islamic Faith 1. Faith -Monotheism (tawhid) 2. Belief in Angels -Important as messengers and helpers of God -Evil Angel: Satan 3. Prophets and Scriptures -Muhammad -relationship between written language and divine revelation 4. The Final Judgment -”doctrine of the last things” -closely associated with the Qur’an 5. The Divine Decree and Predestination -most frequently and passionately discussed 5  -based from Qur’an -Orthopraxy: “right practice”; Muslim devotion and obedience to God; rather than orthodoxy -Islam views religion as a way of life and a ritual patterning of that life under God -Purification -Right and Left hands -Right: clean -Left: impure -Ritual Impurity (Hadath) -Minor: Sleeping, evacuating urine or feces, breaking wind, intoxication, fainting, touching the human genitals with the palm of the hand, and skin contact between married couple -Removed by ablutions (wudu) -Major: Seminal emission, female orgasm, sexual penetration, menstruation, post-partum bleeding -Removed by baths (ghusl) -Circumcision -Reasons: Niyya (Religious intention) -The Five Acts of Worship (ibadat) / The Pillars of Islam 1. Salat “The Worship Service” -formal observance that features cycles of bodily postures climaxing in complete prostration in an orientation toward the Ka’ba in Mecca -Performed 5 times daily -Call to prayer (adhan) -Friday noon prayer 2. Zakat “Legal Almsgiving” -Important for vertical relationship between humans and God through prayer and obedience and for horizontal relationship of Muslims with one another through giving wealth -annual tax of percentage of one’s income -Cash, gold, and silver -Merchandise used in trade -Minerals extracted from the ground -Ancient treasure from before Islam -Cattle (oxen, cows, buffaloes, camels, sheep, and goats) -Crops from tilled land -Reason: Almsgiving 3. Sawm “Fasting During Holy Month of Ramadan” -From before dawn until sunset, forbidden from eating, drinking, smoking, and having marital relations; no chewing/swallowing any external matter or take med
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