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Lecture 1

PHIL-UA 1 Lecture 1: Vocab1

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Vocab 1    1. Statement:​ ​A sentence, utterance or example that is either true or false.  Webster’s: “a single declaration or remark”    Encyc of Philo: “In Aristotelian logic, the most basic statement is a proposition, a complete  sentence that asserts something.  (There are other kinds of sentences—prayers, questions,  commands—that do not assert anything true or false about the world and which, therefore,  exist outside the purview of logic.)”    Syn: Premise (when in an argument), Assertion (when made on its own), explanans (when  explaining something), Proposition (Synonymous with Premise)    2. Method:​ path of inquiry; rules of inquiry.  Webster’s: “a systematic procedure, technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a  particular discipline or art.”    Oxford Dictionary…  of Philosophy: “ it is the "means" to pursue such a search and intend to  attain its end result. Namely it is the direction and thus, we may call it the way or approach.”    Syn: Approach, Process, Procedure    3. Principle:​ organizing rule, truth, or law.  Webster’s: “a comprehensive and fundamental law, doctrine, or assumption.”    E…ncyclopedia of Philo: “ a premise or starting point of reasoning. As classically conceived, an  axiom is a premise so evident as to be accepted as true without controversy.”    Syn: Proposition, Assumption    4. First Principle:​ organizing rule of all thought within a system.  Webster’s: “a basic, foundational proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any  other proposition or assumption.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “ any axiom, law, or abstraction assumed and regarded as  representing the highest possible degree of generalization.”    Syn: Axioms, Postulates    5. Argument:​ ​premises which logically lead to a conclusion.  Webster’s: “a coherent series of statements leading from a premise to a conclusion.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “ an argument is a collection of truth­bearers (that is, the things that  bear truth and falsity, or are true and false) some of which are offered as reasons for one of  them, the conclusion.”    Syn: Justification, Rationalization    6. Theory:​ an argument or series of arguments that have been proven to be true.  Webster’s: “a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles  offered to explain phenomena.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “ a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something.”    Syn: Hypothesis, Thesis, Conjecture    7. Systems Theory:​ ​explains everything within a universe.  Webster’s: “the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of discovering  patterns and elucidating principles that can be discerned from, and applied to, all types of  systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “ an approach to industrial relations which likens the enterprise to an  organism with interdependent parts, each with its own specific function and interrelated  responsibilities.”    Syn: Set Theory, Everything    8. Thing:​ real objects possessed of existence.  Webster’s: “an object or entity not precisely designated or capable of being designated.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “ what can be observed.”    Syn: Object, Article, Item    9. Consciousness:​ the fact of awareness by the mind of itself and the world.  Webster’s: “the state of being characterized by sensation, emotion, volition, and thought.”    Encyclopedia of Philo: “René Descartes defined the very notion of thought (pensée) in terms of  reflexive consciousness or self­awareness. In the Principles of Philosophy (1640) he wrote, ‘By  the word ‘thought’ (‘pensée’) I understand all that of which we are conscious as operating in  us.’”    Syn: Awareness, Knowledge    10. Matter:​ The stuff that makes up everything.  Webster’s: “material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly  of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitute the observable  universe, and that is interconvertible with energy.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “  the substrate from which physical existence is derived, remaining  more or less constant amid changes.”    Syn: Material, Substance, Stuff    11. Extension: ​takes up measurable space.  Webster’s: “ a property whereby something occupies space”    Encyclopedia of Philo: “René Descartes defines extension as the property of existing in more  than one dimension.”    Syn: Physical, Matter    12. Skepticism:​ doubt as to the truth of something.  Webster’s: “the doctrine that true knowledge or knowledge in a particular area is uncertain.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “ the position that one should refrain from making truth claims, and  avoid the postulation of final truths.”    Syn: Doubt, Dubiety, Suspicion    13. Qualia: ​phenomenon that are added to objects from the interaction of mind and matter  that are not part of the object.   Webster’s: “a property as it is experienced as distinct from any source it might have in a  physical object.”    … Encyclopedia of Philo: “ the subjective or qualitative properties of exper
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