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Lecture 1

PHIL-UA 1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Monism, Qualia

5 pages34 viewsFall 2011

Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL-UA 1
Professor
Smith
Lecture
1

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Vocab1
1.Statement:Asentence,utteranceorexamplethatiseithertrueorfalse.
Webster’s:“asingledeclarationorremark”
EncycofPhilo:“InAristotelianlogic,themostbasicstatementisaproposition,acomplete
sentencethatassertssomething.(Thereareotherkindsofsentences—prayers,questions,
commands—thatdonotassertanythingtrueorfalseabouttheworldandwhich,therefore,
existoutsidethepurviewoflogic.)”
Syn:Premise(wheninanargument),Assertion(whenmadeonitsown),explanans(when
explainingsomething),Proposition(SynonymouswithPremise)
2.Method:pathofinquiry;rulesofinquiry.
Webster’s:“asystematicprocedure,technique,ormodeofinquiryemployedbyorpropertoa
particulardisciplineorart.”
OxfordDictionaryofPhilosophy:“
itisthe"means"topursuesuchasearchandintendto
attainitsendresult.Namelyitisthedirectionandthus,wemaycallitthewayorapproach.”
Syn:Approach,Process,Procedure
3.Principle:organizingrule,truth,orlaw.
Webster’s:“acomprehensiveandfundamentallaw,doctrine,orassumption.”
EncyclopediaofPhilo:“
apremiseorstartingpointofreasoning.Asclassicallyconceived,an
axiomisapremisesoevidentastobeacceptedastruewithoutcontroversy.”
Syn:Proposition,Assumption
4.FirstPrinciple:organizingruleofallthoughtwithinasystem.
Webster’s:“abasic,foundationalpropositionorassumptionthatcannotbededucedfromany
otherpropositionorassumption.”
EncyclopediaofPhilo:“
anyaxiom,law,orabstractionassumedandregardedas
representingthehighestpossibledegreeofgeneralization.”
Syn:Axioms,Postulates
5.Argument:premiseswhichlogicallyleadtoaconclusion.
Webster’s:“acoherentseriesofstatementsleadingfromapremisetoaconclusion.”
EncyclopediaofPhilo:“
anargumentisacollectionoftruthbearers(thatis,thethingsthat
beartruthandfalsity,oraretrueandfalse)someofwhichareofferedasreasonsforoneof
them,theconclusion.”
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Syn:Justification,Rationalization
6.Theory:anargumentorseriesofargumentsthathavebeenproventobetrue.
Webster’s:“aplausibleorscientificallyacceptablegeneralprincipleorbodyofprinciples
offeredtoexplainphenomena.”
EncyclopediaofPhilo:“
asuppositionorasystemofideasintendedtoexplainsomething.”
Syn:Hypothesis,Thesis,Conjecture
7.SystemsTheory:explainseverythingwithinauniverse.
Webster’s:“theinterdisciplinarystudyofsystemsingeneral,withthegoalofdiscovering
patternsandelucidatingprinciplesthatcanbediscernedfrom,andappliedto,alltypesof
systemsatallnestinglevelsinallfieldsofresearch.”
EncyclopediaofPhilo:“
anapproachtoindustrialrelationswhichlikenstheenterprisetoan
organismwithinterdependentparts,eachwithitsownspecificfunctionandinterrelated
responsibilities.”
Syn:SetTheory,Everything
8.Thing:realobjectspossessedofexistence.
Webster’s:“anobjectorentitynotpreciselydesignatedorcapableofbeingdesignated.”
EncyclopediaofPhilo:“
whatcanbeobserved.”
Syn:Object,Article,Item
9.Consciousness:thefactofawarenessbythemindofitselfandtheworld.
Webster’s:“thestateofbeingcharacterizedbysensation,emotion,volition,andthought.”
EncyclopediaofPhilo:“RenéDescartesdefinedtheverynotionofthought(pensée)intermsof
reflexiveconsciousnessorselfawareness.InthePrinciplesofPhilosophy(1640)hewrote,‘By
theword‘thought’(‘pensée’)Iunderstandallthatofwhichweareconsciousasoperatingin
us.’”
Syn:Awareness,Knowledge
10.Matter:Thestuffthatmakesupeverything.
Webster’s:“materialsubstancethatoccupiesspace,hasmass,andiscomposedpredominantly
ofatomsconsistingofprotons,neutrons,andelectrons,thatconstitutetheobservable
universe,andthatisinterconvertiblewithenergy.”
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