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Lecture 22

PSYCH-UA 30 Lecture 22: personality_12.1.2014

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New York University
Andersen Susan

find more resources at Personality Lecture 12/1/2014 6:27:00 PM Anxiety o In what way are schemas pertinent to anxiety disorders  They are pertinent to anxiety disorders, and the particular way in which schemas have been most studied in the area of anxiety disorders has to do with phobias o Phobias – how do they arise?  Easiest way to think about it is in terms of classically conditioned responses and in terms of the issue of the neurotic paradox  Neurotic paradox: classically conditioned aversive response – come to associate some previous neutral cue with aversive responses; neurotic paradox is that because you have this aversive response, you don’t have the opportunity to unlearn the aversive response  one of the primary treatments for phobias is exposure treatment; come face to face with anxiety-provoking stimulus  if you do it in your head in a shrink's office, that’s called systematic desensitization o How do schemas play a role in anxiety disorders?  Matthews and MacLeod o Not schemas about the self; schemas concern the environment and the phobic situations in which these stimuli are likely to b encountered  Schemas are highly organized knowledge structures that involve stimulus domain that you are afraid of  Modified stroop task  name the color in which this word is written and the word is spider o If you don’t have a spider phobia, then seeing the word spider will not slow down reaction time o going to be trying to follow the instructions o if you're afraid of spiders, it’ll take you longer to name the color that the word is written in  schemas enable researchers to get at idea of hyper vigilance to threat cues o Panic disorder  hyper sensitivity to physical sensation  catastraphizing o about how awful it would be find more resources at find more resources at o PTSD – idea is that you’re exposed to some super emotional event; obviously frightening at the time  Start avoiding all stimuli  Edna Boa (?) done research on PTSD and interventions and so on; lots of research on exposure therapies surprisingly for ptsd folks  Marylene Cloitra  what is the basic process cognitively that ptsd patients are experiencing that is associated with their symptoms  idea that if you have a traumatic exp that is enormously important  people have their whole set of all of their knowledge and it’s all kinds of stuff  idea that ppl with ptsd, the traumatic event may end up being, relatively speaking, disconnected from all the rest of your stored knowledge about yourself  inhibitory connection in memory  ends up designing an intervention  cognitive exposure therapy  better integrate traumatic knowledge with everything else that you have stored away in memory o generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)  not about phobia in particular, not ptsd, not panic disorder  tendency to be anxious all the time  broad-based level of anxiety all the time  continuous  what are people with GAD doing -- what are they going through mentally? o What they seem to be doing is constantly worrying o self focused attention o trying to avert disaster o the idea is that the more you worry, the better off you’ll be Shift to talking about mastery and competence Is rumination always bad? Is worry always bad? Isn’t there some room in the world for healthy self reflection?  Issue of mental simulation  Shelley Taylor find more resources at find more resources at  practicing giving a talk in empty lecture hall example; experience of staying on track and not getting panic stricken  Shelley Taylor got interested in idea that some types of self reflection involve a very healthy form on mental simulation  get benefits of practice effects, performance will be more fluent/fluid/confident  evidence to show that just envisioning anything – like mentally imagining tennis swing o same parts of motor cortex are going to be activated as would normally be activated if you were literally doing the tennis swing o brain is doing the practicing as you're thinking about it  Gabrielle Oettingen  idea that positive thinking and positive fantasy (while it sounds good an makes a certain amount of sense and while there is quite a lot of evidence about optimi
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