PSYCH 3313 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Central Nervous System, Periaqueductal Gray, Dorsal Root Ganglion

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Spinal cord: ascending and descending pathways, extends from medulla to the first lumbar vertebra, 31 peripheral spinal nerves. Coccygeal: outside spinal cord nerves swell to form spinal ganglion, cross-sections of spinal cord. White matter (nerve fibers); gray matter (cell bodies) Ventral horn = voluntary movement or spinal reflexes. Patellar reflex (knee kick: damage to spinal cord. F. 2. loss of voluntary movement in parts of body at or below damaged area. F. 3. loss of voluntary control of bladder or bowels. Involved in sleep, arousal, audition, balance, motions sickness. Netlike mixture of neurons (gray matter) and nerve fibers (white matter) throughout medulla and pons. Controls speed, intensity, direction of complex voluntary movements. Size increases with the speed and dexterity of a species: midbrain. Separated by cerebral aqueduct links the third and fourth ventricles. Visual gaze and localization of auditory stimuli: forebrain. Regulatory center: works like a thermostat, is responsible for maintaining a constant internal state (homeostasis)

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