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Lecture 6

Week 6 ANS 217.pdf

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Oregon State University
Animal Sciences
ANS 217

Poultry Genetics 2/12/13 1:03 PM Gregor Mendel • Genetics as the study of heredity had it’s practical origin in peas o 1856- began experiments o 1865- presented paper o 1866- proceedings published • Observed and identified several noticeable traits in pea plants and kept track to find patterns • Laws o Segregation: each trait has two possibilities which pass to offspring in a random but predictable way  3:1 ratio  With large enough sample size o Independent assortment: different traits are passed to offspring without regard to any other trait  9:3:3:1 ratio • Punnet Square o Trait must be completely dominant  Phenotype (appearance/morphology)  3:1 (single trait)  9:3:3:1 (2 related traits)  Genotype (genes)  1:2:1 (single trait)  1:2:2:4:1:2:1:2:1 (2 related traits)  But these only produce 4 distinct morphologies  Mendel could only observe morphology… o Triple heterozygous cross  27 genotypes and 8 phenotypes out of 64 births!  Cornsnake example…  Many masked genes due to heterozygous dominant genes Historical genetics facts • Mendel’s results not accepted for nearly 40 years • 1900 findings were rediscovered • Mendel’s research validated in animals by William Bateson (studied comb types in chickens) o Bateson coined the term “genetics” o Lasted until the 1950s, now we are shifting to molecular genetics • Oregon state’s contribution o James Dryden  Used genetics to improve production  Selective breeding  First dept head, poultry husbandry  Achieved numerous accomplishments in poultry breeding and management  Inducted to nat’ agr. Hall of fame, 1991  Lady McDuff layed 303 in one year (1911)  Oregona layed 1188 eggs in 5 yrs  Published his work from this study in 1913 Where is the genetic material found? • Nucleus of active cells o Female includes mitochondrial DNA, males do
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