BIOL 1120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Xylem, Soil Ph, Soil Conservation

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31 May 2016

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Chapter 38: Plant Nutrition and Soils
I. Plant Nutrients and Their Availability in Soils
A. Nutrients Essential for Plant Growth
1. ___________ (Table 38.1, p. 777)
a. Elements essential for growth and survival
b. Acquired as simple INORGANIC compounds or ions
c. C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, B, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cl
d. _______________
i. Required in ______ quantities
ii. C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca, & Mg
e. _______________
i. Required in _______ amounts
ii. Fe, Cl, Cu, Mn, Zn, B, & Mo
2. Leaves take up gases (i.e. CO 2 & O2) by diffusion via stomata.
3. Roots take up H 2O and minerals from the soil .
B. Properties of Soil
1. Soil constituents :
a. __________ - dead organisms and their litter
b. Soil mineral particles which occur in 3 types :
i. ________
Largest of the particles
Increases water infiltration
ii. _________
Second largest particles
Wind blown particles resulting from glaciation
iii. __________
Smallest of the particles
Holds onto nutrients as water percolates through the soil
c. Plants do best in ______, soils with nearly equal proportions of the three particle types.
2. Soil layers can be classified by profile properties (Fig. 38.1, p. 774).
a. _________
i. Uppermost layer
ii. Contains humus
iii. Most essential for plant growth
b. __________
i. Located below the topsoil
ii. Very little organic matter
iii. More mineral content than topsoil
C. Effect of water on soil nutrients
1. _________ - the removal of some of the nutrients from soil as water percolates through it.
2. _________
a. The movement of soil under the force of wind, running water, and ice.
b. Soil particles can be washed into rivers and streams carrying nutrients with them.
c. Soil conservation practices like ________________ can greatly reduce erosion and its effects.
i. Reduction in topsoil loss
ii. Reduction in nutrient loss
II. Roots Absorption of Mineral Ions
A. Roots acquire minerals in a 4 step process :
1. ______________
a. Minerals are actively pumped across the root hair exodermis via transport proteins using energy from
b. Minerals are concentrated in the root hair cytoplasm.
2. _______________
a. Minerals diffuse passively from epidermal cells ® pericycle via plasmodesmata.
b. Route to pericycle : ____________ (epidermis) ® __________ ® _____________ ® ____________
c. The waxy __________________ of the endodermis seals off the vascular cylinder and keeps the minerals
from leaking back into the cortex.
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