BIOL 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Dinoflagellate, Alveolate, Plasmodium

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6 Feb 2017
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02-06-2017 BIOL 110
Lecture 12: Harmful Algal Blooms, Plasmodium and Diatoms
I. Dinoflagellates and harmful algal blooms
a. Also kow as ed tides
b. ~50 dinoflagellate species secrete neurotoxins (brevetoxins)
i. Defensive protect themselves and the surrounding area from predators
ii. Offensive can kill fish, plankton, etc.
c. Disrupt ecosystems during uncharacteristically large population increases (algal blooms)
i. Can cause the body of water to change color (red, brown, orange, yellow)
II. Biological macromolecules refresher
a. All require carbon
i. Lipids
ii. Carbohydrates
iii. Proteins
iv. Nucleic acids
b. Which require nitrogen?
i. Proteins
ii. Nucleic acids
c. Which require phosphorus?
i. (phospho)lipids
ii. Nucleic acids
d. Photosynthetic organisms get carbon from CO2 (autotrophs)
III. Causes of harmful algal blooms
a. Warm temperature, high light exposure
b. Nutrient availability excess nitrogen and phosphorus
i. Updrift from ocean floor
ii. Fertilizer runoff
1. Aricultural or residential; waste/sewage
IV. Impacts of harmful algal blooms
a. Annual loss of $82 million (seafood & tourism industry)
b. Drinking water contamination
c. Dead zones
i. When population numbers drop off, the uncharacteristically large number of
decomposing bodies deoxygenates the water, making it completely
uninhabitable
V. Alveolata: apicomplexans
a. Parasites
b. Infect cells using apical complex
i. Microtubules at the tip of the cell pierce host cells
ii. Many species require multiple hosts
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