Ch. 41- Nutrition and Digestion.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 240W
Professor
D R.J O H N P E L E S
Semester
Spring

Description
Biology 240 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Nutrition & Digestion: Chapter 41 I. Dietary Requirements A. Energy B. Organic carbon C. Essential nutrients 1. Amino acids 2. Fatty acids 3. Vitamins- Organic molecule required in small amounts in the diet Class Vitamin(s) Function(s) Water-soluble B-vitamins Coenzyme formation; Production of red blood cells Water-soluble Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Collagen synthesis; Antioxidant Fat-soluble Vitamin A (Retinol) Visual pigments; Antioxidant Fat-soluble Vitamin D Absorption of calcium and phosphorous; Bone growth Fat-soluble Vitamin E Antioxidant Fat-soluble Vitamin K Blood clotting 4. Minerals- Inorganic molecule required in small amounts in the diet Class Vitamin(s) Calcium Nerve and muscle function Phosphorous Formation of ATP and nucleic acid Iron Hemoglobin; Enzyme cofactor Magnesium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Enzyme cofactors Selenium Iodine Formation of thyroid hormones Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine Osmotic balance ~ 1 ~ Biology 240 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Sulfur Protein production II. Food Processing A. Stages of food processing 1. Ingestion i. Suspension feeder ii. Substrate feeder iii. Fluid feeder iv. Bulk feeder 2. Digestion i. Digestive compartments a. Intracellular compartments b. Extracellular compartments i. Gastrovascular cavity ii. Alimentary canal 3. Absorption 4. Elimination III. Mammalian Digestion A. Components of the mammalian digestive system 1. Alimentary canal 2. Accessory digestive organs B. Food processing in the mammalian digestive system 1. Oral cavity 2. Pharynx 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach ~ 2 ~ Biology 240 Dr. Peles Date: / / . 5. Small intestine i. Regions of the small intestine a. Duodenum- digestion of macromolecules b. Jejunum & Ileum- Absorption of nutrients and water ii. Zymogen- Digestive enzyme that is produced in inactive form by the pancreas iii. Absorption in the small intestine a. Sugars, Amino acids, Vitamins, Minerals: absorption into the Hepatic Portal System i. Hepatic Portal System- Capillaries from small intestine → Hepatic portal vein → Capillaries → Hepatic vein b. Glycerol and fatty acids: Absorption into lymphatic system 6. Large Intestine i. Functions of the large intestine a. Reabsorption of water b.
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