• Psychopathology – scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of
• What is abnormal?
• Unusual (how rare) and Maladaptive
• Cultural deviance (violate social norms)
• Emotional distress
• Loss of normal functioning (e.g. occupation)
Classifying Abnormal Behavior
• Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) – now it’s in 4 th
edition (DMSTVTR), Multiaxial system – Axis I and II: all major diagnostic
Axis I – ego distonic disorders.
Axis II – ego sintine.
Axis III – general medical conditions of relevance.
Axis IV – psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V – current level of functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning
• General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) – persistent “freefloating” worry and chronic
overarousal over a long period of time. Worries 60% about their day
• Panic Disorder “Tornado of Anxiety” – marked by the sudden recurrence of
intense terror such as fear of dying
• Phobic Disorders – an irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a specific
object or situation. Excessive and disproportionate to the situation
• Social Phobias – intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social
• Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – an anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of
anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain
• Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) – anxiety symptoms that develop through
exposure to a traumatic event. Three core symptoms: frequent recall of the event
(flashbacks) that are intrusive, avoidance of related stimuli and suffer from issues
with emotions, increased physical arousal
• Significant and persistent feelings of despondency, worthless, and hopelessness,
which causes major impairments in the individ