Chapter 5 Study Guide
Practice Exam Questions:
Which of the following is not included in the definition of learning?
It is demonstrated immediately
Assuming you have eaten sour pickles before, imagine eating a large juicy sour pickle. If thinking
about it causes your mouth to water, then your salivation would be referred to as a/an:
In what way does an unconditioned response differ from a conditioned response?
The UCR is generally more intense.
In Pavlovian conditioning, learning occurs more readily when the CS:
precedes the UCS by .5 seconds
How can the ease with which some individuals acquire some phobias (in some cases people
acquire phobias with a single exposure, while others never acquire a phobia after 100 pairings) be
The conditioning stimuli are more intense in some pairings.
Extinction of the CR in Pavlovian conditioning occurs when the:
CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS
Adog taught to salivate when shown a circle also salivates when shown a square. This behavior is
referred to as:
Achild is knocked down by a large friendly dog and is frightened. Later he sees his
grandmother's dog and is frightened. The fear has been:
Your son never throws temper tantrums when he is with you, yet he very easily resorts to one
when your spouse is in charge. This is an example of:
Reinforcers increase the probability that behavior will be:
anything, so long as it increases the possibility that the response preceding it will be repeated.
Negative reinforcers are defined as stimuli that:
increase the frequency of a response when they are removed.
Which type of conditioning is being used if a rat presses a bar in order to turn off an electrical
Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
Aslot machine or "one-armed bandit" increases gambling behavior by:
partial reinforcement Behaviors that are required through partial instead of continuous schedules of reinforcement are:
slower to be established but more resistant to extiction
If a worker gets paid every Friday for completing her 40-hour work week, she is being paid on a
When speaking of schedules of reinforcement, interval schedules always relate to:
elapsed time between reinforcements
Universal Studios wants to train a cat to pull a rope. The likelihood of the cat engaging in this
behavior as a normal part of its behavior is very low. Which of the techniques for obtaining the
initial response would be the best choice?:
Amy is learning to do a back walkover in gym class. Which of the following techniques would be
the best technique to use to encourage the desired initial response?
One basic difference between Pavlovian conditioning and operant conditioning is that:
in Pavlovian two stimuli are associated, and in operant a response and a stimulis are associated.
(A) Potential undesirable side effect(s) of punishment is/are:
fear, hostility, hatred, counter aggression against the punisher, anxiety that may interfere with
Why is sending a note home to a parent not the most effective method of suppressing undesirable
The association between the response and the punishment needs to be immediate
Being able to familiarize oneself with the streets of a town, and then one day being able to go to a
certain place (hospital, police station) easily, although that route had never been taken before, is
an example of what type of learning?:
What type of learning is not mechanically acquired through reinforcement and in which overt
responses may not be a result?
Relatively enduring change in potential behavior that results from experience.
Learning by making an association between two stimulus events (Pavlovian conditioning), or by
learning an association between a response and its consequence.
Learning that takes place when a neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with a stimulus (UCS) that already
produces a response (UCR).
What happens after conditioning?
The organism responds to the neutral stimulus (CS) in some way. What is the response to the CS called?
Aconditioned response (CR).
Learning an association between one's behavior and its consequence (reinforcement or punishment)
Learning that depends on a particular type of perceptual experience during a critical time in
What is an example of template learning?
Imprinting and language learning
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS):
In Pavlovian conditioning, a stimulus that elicits and unlearned response or reflex.
Unconditioned response (UCR):
In Pavlovian conditioning, an unlearned response or reflex caused by an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response (CR):
In Pavlovian conditioning, a learned response to a conditioned stimulus.
Acquisition of Pavlovian Conditioning
In Pavlovian conditioning, the process of learning to associate a conditioned stimulus with an
What is an acquisition in operant conditioning?
The process of learning to associate responses with a reinforcer or punisher.
When does conditioning take place more easily?
When the neutral or conditioned stimulus is clearly different from other stimuli.
What does the intensity of the UCS influence?
Conditioning as will the frequency with which the CS and UCS are paired
Stimulus Contingency and Conditioning
What did Rescorla's experiment expose? When did this occur?
Exposed rats to one of two conditioning procedures: either stimulus contingent procedure or a non-
contingent procedure; 1968
Stimulus contingent procedure:
Aseries of CSs and UCSs (tones and shocks) were presented, but a UCS (shock) never occured unless
a CS (tone) preceded it- the presentation of the UCS was contingent upon a CS preceding it.
The same number of CS and UCS presentations occurred: however, the presentations of the CS and
UCS were independent- the presentation of the UCS was not contingent upon a CS preceding it.
CS-UCS Timing and Conditioning
Delayed conditioning: In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented just
before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to
the unconditioned stimulus.
In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented at the
same time as the unconditioned stimulus.
In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when presentation of the conditioned stimulus
begins and ends before the unconditioned stimulus is presented.
In Pavlovian conditioning, presenting the unconditioned stimulus prior to the conditioned and resulting
in little or no conditioning
Who was the first to study conditioned taste aversions?
What is conditioned taste aversions also knows as?
The Garcia effect
Alearned aversion to a relatively novel taste or smell that occurs following illness or nausea
What individuals commonly experience conditioned taste aversion?
Individuals who have undergone chemo or radiation therapy for cancer
Extinction and Reinstatement
In Pavlovian conditioning, the process by which a conditioned response is eliminated through repeated
presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
conditioning?rocess of eliminating a response by discontinuing reinforcement for it in operant
In Pavlovian conditioning, the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has taken place
Stimulus Generalization and Discr