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Chapter 5 Study Guide

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Chapter 5 Study Guide Practice Exam Questions: Which of the following is not included in the definition of learning? It is demonstrated immediately Assuming you have eaten sour pickles before, imagine eating a large juicy sour pickle. If thinking about it causes your mouth to water, then your salivation would be referred to as a/an: Conditioned response In what way does an unconditioned response differ from a conditioned response? The UCR is generally more intense. In Pavlovian conditioning, learning occurs more readily when the CS: precedes the UCS by .5 seconds How can the ease with which some individuals acquire some phobias (in some cases people acquire phobias with a single exposure, while others never acquire a phobia after 100 pairings) be explained? The conditioning stimuli are more intense in some pairings. Extinction of the CR in Pavlovian conditioning occurs when the: CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS Adog taught to salivate when shown a circle also salivates when shown a square. This behavior is referred to as: generalization Achild is knocked down by a large friendly dog and is frightened. Later he sees his grandmother's dog and is frightened. The fear has been: generalized Your son never throws temper tantrums when he is with you, yet he very easily resorts to one when your spouse is in charge. This is an example of: stimulus discrimination Reinforcers increase the probability that behavior will be: repeated Areinforcer is: anything, so long as it increases the possibility that the response preceding it will be repeated. Negative reinforcers are defined as stimuli that: increase the frequency of a response when they are removed. Which type of conditioning is being used if a rat presses a bar in order to turn off an electrical shock? Escape Which of the following is a primary reinforcer? Asoft drink Aslot machine or "one-armed bandit" increases gambling behavior by: partial reinforcement Behaviors that are required through partial instead of continuous schedules of reinforcement are: slower to be established but more resistant to extiction If a worker gets paid every Friday for completing her 40-hour work week, she is being paid on a _____ schedule: fixed-interval When speaking of schedules of reinforcement, interval schedules always relate to: elapsed time between reinforcements Universal Studios wants to train a cat to pull a rope. The likelihood of the cat engaging in this behavior as a normal part of its behavior is very low. Which of the techniques for obtaining the initial response would be the best choice?: Shaping Amy is learning to do a back walkover in gym class. Which of the following techniques would be the best technique to use to encourage the desired initial response? Modeling One basic difference between Pavlovian conditioning and operant conditioning is that: in Pavlovian two stimuli are associated, and in operant a response and a stimulis are associated. (A) Potential undesirable side effect(s) of punishment is/are: fear, hostility, hatred, counter aggression against the punisher, anxiety that may interfere with performance. Why is sending a note home to a parent not the most effective method of suppressing undesirable behavior? The association between the response and the punishment needs to be immediate Being able to familiarize oneself with the streets of a town, and then one day being able to go to a certain place (hospital, police station) easily, although that route had never been taken before, is an example of what type of learning?: Latent learning What type of learning is not mechanically acquired through reinforcement and in which overt responses may not be a result? Observational learning ___________________________________________________________________________________ Defining Learning Learning: Relatively enduring change in potential behavior that results from experience. Associative learning: Learning by making an association between two stimulus events (Pavlovian conditioning), or by learning an association between a response and its consequence. Pavlovian conditioning: Learning that takes place when a neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with a stimulus (UCS) that already produces a response (UCR). What happens after conditioning? The organism responds to the neutral stimulus (CS) in some way. What is the response to the CS called? Aconditioned response (CR). Operant conditioning: Learning an association between one's behavior and its consequence (reinforcement or punishment) Template learning: Learning that depends on a particular type of perceptual experience during a critical time in development. What is an example of template learning? Imprinting and language learning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): In Pavlovian conditioning, a stimulus that elicits and unlearned response or reflex. Unconditioned response (UCR): In Pavlovian conditioning, an unlearned response or reflex caused by an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned response (CR): In Pavlovian conditioning, a learned response to a conditioned stimulus. Acquisition of Pavlovian Conditioning Acquisition: In Pavlovian conditioning, the process of learning to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. What is an acquisition in operant conditioning? The process of learning to associate responses with a reinforcer or punisher. When does conditioning take place more easily? When the neutral or conditioned stimulus is clearly different from other stimuli. What does the intensity of the UCS influence? Conditioning as will the frequency with which the CS and UCS are paired Stimulus Contingency and Conditioning What did Rescorla's experiment expose? When did this occur? Exposed rats to one of two conditioning procedures: either stimulus contingent procedure or a non- contingent procedure; 1968 Stimulus contingent procedure: Aseries of CSs and UCSs (tones and shocks) were presented, but a UCS (shock) never occured unless a CS (tone) preceded it- the presentation of the UCS was contingent upon a CS preceding it. Non-contingent procedure: The same number of CS and UCS presentations occurred: however, the presentations of the CS and UCS were independent- the presentation of the UCS was not contingent upon a CS preceding it. CS-UCS Timing and Conditioning Delayed conditioning: In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to the unconditioned stimulus. Simultaneous conditioning: In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented at the same time as the unconditioned stimulus. Trace conditioning: In Pavlovian conditioning, learning that takes place when presentation of the conditioned stimulus begins and ends before the unconditioned stimulus is presented. Backward conditioning: In Pavlovian conditioning, presenting the unconditioned stimulus prior to the conditioned and resulting in little or no conditioning Conditioned TasteAversions Who was the first to study conditioned taste aversions? John Garcia What is conditioned taste aversions also knows as? The Garcia effect Conditioned TasteAversion: Alearned aversion to a relatively novel taste or smell that occurs following illness or nausea What individuals commonly experience conditioned taste aversion? Individuals who have undergone chemo or radiation therapy for cancer Extinction and Reinstatement Extinction: In Pavlovian conditioning, the process by which a conditioned response is eliminated through repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus conditioning?rocess of eliminating a response by discontinuing reinforcement for it in operant Extinction Reinstatement: In Pavlovian conditioning, the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has taken place Stimulus Generalization and Discr
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