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PSYCH100 Lecture Notes Lecture #1-2

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Jeff Love

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PSYCH100 Lecture Notes Fall 2012 1 Birth of Psychology as a Science What is Structuralism? • Wilhelm Wundt - ran first psychology lab in Germany (1879) o mind consists of basic elements analyzed via objective introspection • Edward Titchener - introspected about physical objectsAND thoughts o “tell me what comes to mind when you see this object” What is Functionalism? • William James - firstAmerican psychologist o “stream of thoughts” vs. elements of the mind o focused on adaptation, living, working, playing – what is the purpose/function of these things in the real world? What is Psychoanalysis (aka. Psychodynamic)? o Sigmund Freud – neurologist in the late 18 century Vienna o Emphasized the unconscious & early childhood o Not that common today What is Behaviorism? o Key figures: B.F. Skinner, John Watson, Mary Cover Jones o If we can’t observe it for the record, then it’s not worth recording o Major focus is on rewards & punishments in shaping our behavior Psychology Now: Contemporary Perspectives Modern Perspectives • Relationship between social behavior & culture (Sociocultural) o Ex. Social loafing in Western civilizations (highly individualistic) vs. social striving in Japan (community-focused) • People have the freedom to choose their own destiny (Humanism) • Attribute human & animal behavior to biological events (Biopsychological) • Study of memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, learning (Cognitive) o Executive function = advanced problem-solving • Through the process of natural selection, how certain processes/behaviors have developed to ast in survival (Evolutionary) • Even in the 21 century, there isn’t one single perspective that is used to explain all human behavior & mental processes Psychology Methodology The Scientific Method • 5 steps: perceive (observations)  hypothesize  test  draw conclusions  report/revise/replicate • Theories & Hypotheses o Theory – an organized set of principles that describes, predicts, and explains some phenomenon o Hypothesis – a specific testable prediction, often derived from a theory  Ex. Hans Eysenck’s Theory of Personality, which states that: • There are 3 dimensions of personality PSYCH100 Lecture Notes Fall 2012
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