Chapter 9 notes.doc

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Nicholas Pearson

1 Psych 301W – Spring 2013 • Experimental Research—One-Way Designs – In an experiment, the investigator • Manipulate the Independent Variable (or variables) • Arranges different experiences for the research participants • Assess the impact of these different experiences • One or more measured variables (DVs) • Demonstration of Causality – How do we determine whether one event causes another event: (does A cause B?) • Association • Is there a correlation between an IV and a DV? • The causal relationships between variables in behavioral science are probabilistic • Temporal Priority • If event A occurs before event B, then A might be causing B • If event A occurs after event B, then A cannot be causing B • Control of Common Causal Variables • Causal statements • Require ruling out the influence of common-causal variables • Experimental manipulations • The process through which the researcher rules out the possibility that the relationship between the IV and IV is spurious • A One-Way Experimental Design – Has one independent variable – The independent variable is created (manipulated) – Levels • Refers to the specific situations that are created within the manipulation • In one-way designs, these are called the experimental conditions • Equivalence and Control – What is Equivalence? – Equivalence can be created through • Between-participants designs with different but equivalent participants in each level of the experiment…or… • Repeated-measures designs with the same people in each of the expe
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