class 19 - 04:03:12.doc

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Pennsylvania State University
Nicholas Pearson

Class 19 - 04/03/12 Chapter 12 – HumanAggression The violent nature ofAmerican Society (1963-1973) – 46,121 Americans killed in Vietnam War – 84,644 Americans shot to death inAmerica Homicide by gun rate in America – 35 times higher than Germany, Denmark or England, 7 times higher than Canada or France Aggression – Aggression: Intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain – Hostile aggression – Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain – Emotional aggression – Aggression is the end itself – InstrumentalAggression: – Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain – Doing harm to get or sell drugs HostileAggression – Immediate conditions – Threat of self-esteem, status or respect – Aggression to save your face – Long term conditions: – Repeated threats to self-worth or status – Threat to self →Anger →Aggression as an end Other immediate conditions – Increases in arousal increase anger level – Unpleasant heat, painful cold, stressful noises, crowding, noxious odors Instrumental aggression – Immediate conditions: – Opportunity for gain with high reward and low perceived risk – Long term conditions – Poverty or other challenging economic factors – Perceive crime as primary means to resources / respect – Norms foster aggression as a way to achieve resources – Opportunity → Rewards / costs →Aggression as means Why are people so aggressive? – Evolutionary Theories – Freud: Psychoanalytic theory (drive to death) – Darwin: Selection for aggression – Recent views (Pinker) Chemical Causes of Aggression – Serotonin: Chemical produced in the midbrain that inhibits impulsive aggression – Alack of serotonin can lead to increased aggression – Testosterone: Male sex hormone associated with aggression
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