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SOC 023 (1)

Sociology 23 Lecture Notes.doc

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Pennsylvania State University
SOC 023
Steven Haas

Sociology 23Fall 2012August 28 2012CHAPTER 1Three major demographic forcesoFertilityoMigrationoMortality Common destinydeath Large effect on society programs changes patternsDemography deals with closelyknit topicsMarriageCollege ChildrenEct Biggest challenges we will be facingAging of population oEuropean countries are facing this now due to fertility dropsoIn 20 years social security will be depleted oAn aging population that depletes social security leads to not fully supporting current population 6 elephants in the room 6 monkeys on your backoMaternalpaternal grandparentsoParentsoGreat grandparents Everything is related to demographyoMost important social security and health carePolitics is related to demographyWhat are they focusing onoThe election of the president and the politics are all related to demographyWhat is DemographyStudy ofoPopulation sizeAlmost 7 billionoStructurecompositionoDevelopmentchanges1Population size AggregateaAbsolute sizeiApproximately 7 billionbDensityiEmpty chairs in class displays nondense courseiiExample AfricaIndiamore people than space availableiiiRelationship between size of population and the landcDistributioniHow is the population distributed which countries have the largest populations1China2India3USAiiOwn problems1Pollution2Poor infrastructure 2Structure aAgeiIn developing countries huge young age structureiiIn European countries less young agebSexcRacedEthnicity eIncomefOccupation3Population change and developmentaCausesbConsequences iSize the number of individual in an aggregate or populationiiStructure the ways in which subaggressive and subpopulations are formediiiGeographic distribution how an aggregate or population is dispersed over physical spaceivChange in size structure andor geographic distribution the dynamic aspects of these characteristics as they change over timeSeptember 4 2012Why is Demography importantTerrorism and regional conflictConflict in the middle eastSubSaharan AfricaJapanoCulture likely to suffer with lack of workforce and high aging of populationoFallen behind chinaoCurrently 25 of population is 65 but in the next few decades that will rise to almost half of the population40 of Japan will be over the age 65 by 2055Age structure of the population the young and the oldoHigher fertility leads to young age structureHigh growth ratepositive momentumo55 of Indian population belongs to the younger structureoLower fertility leads to older age structureWhen countries experience negative country growth the percentage of people who belong to the old age structure increasesLeads to major problems with healthcare and social securityo6 monkeys on your back and 6 elephants in the roomParents grandparents children InlawsoHuge baby boomers17GDP goes to healthcarecurrently 203030 of GDP will go to health careBoomer TsunamiBoomer HurricaneoImmigrants keep the production high in the United States13 of Americans belong to old age structure20301920 of Americans belong to old age structureoEverything is connected to the aging populationoMedical technology has extended average American life to 80oAlzheimer rate rapidly increasing oOther countries have surpassed us in the number of college graduatesthUS is 12 placeoNow3538 million belong 65By 2055 itll go up to 66 millionImmigration controversyoMigration from LDCs to MDCsLDCless developed countriesHuge young age structureHigh fertilityHuge working age structureHigh unemploymentNot technologically advancedMDCmore developed countriesoCultural diversity
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