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BIOSC 0150 Lecture Notes Starting Ch. 10

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Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0150
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Bio Notes starting 10/5/12 10/15/2012 11:07:00 PM Lysosomes  pH 5, 100X more acidic than cytosol  found in animal cells  function in defense, maintaince, development  Ex. Tay sachs o Missing one enzyme  Many in cell  Need ATP to cross into lysosome o Need “protein pump” H+ into lysosome to keep lysosome acidic o Mucolipidosis type IV  If genetic lysosomal storage disease  Just because of one mutating one lysosome/protein o Have GFP (from jelly fish) show green light Mitochondria  Not part of the endomembrane system  Principle site of ATP production in Aerobic cell  Site of cellular respiration o Glucose and fatty acids make ATP  Have their own DNA separate from the cell DNA  Have two difference membranes o Inner  Inner is 20:80 lipid:protein  Inbetween matrix, cristae folds  Makes ATP o Outer  Outer is 50:50 lipid:protein—allows the passage of small particles Chloroplasts (plants)  Photosynthesis  Convert solar E to chemical E  By using green pigment chlorophyll  Membrane bound sacs- thylakoids which contains chlorophyll and enzymes that absorb light and generate ATP during photosynthesis  Stacked to form grana  Stroma o Fluid outside the thylakoid  can migrate and have own DNA Peroxisomes  Specialized compartment bound by a simple membrane  Transfer H ions to O creating hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct  Fatty acid break down  Self replicating Vacuoles  Huge vesicles  Membrane bound sacs  Transport  Food ingestion storage  In plants—store pigment or toxins Cytoskeleton  Network of interconnected fibers that extend through cell  Organize structures and activities  Scaffold  Functions/Characteristics o Provide support o Maintain shape o Dynamic o Allow motility  3 main components o microtubules-thickest o microfilaments-thinnest o intermediate-filament Microtubules  Straight, hollow  Made of protein  2 polypeptides o alpha tubulin o beta tubulin  Elongate by adding tubulin on the end  When dismantled, tubulin used elsewhere  25 nm  Composed of cilia and flagella for motility  Serve as a track for movement organelles  Separate chromosomes during cell division Centrosome  Microtubule organizing center  Microtubules grow out of this region by the nucleus  Within centrosome is a pair of centriols o 9 triplets sets of microtubules  perpendicular so they can grow freely Microfilaments  Actin filaments  Solid rods  Twisted double chain of actin subunits  Present in all eukaryotic cells  Resist pull force  Cell motility, cell crawling and pinching during division  7 nm  Makes muscle contract Intermediate filament  More perminant  Most stable  Provide structure  Nucleus encaged in by these  No net structure, filament form  8-12 nm  Structural, one end bound to a membrane  Review THE CYTOSKELETON Microtubules  In eukaryotic cells  2 polypeptides  Track for movement  Grow out of centrosomes  9+0 o 9 sets of triplets with hollow middle  Different cell types that organize microtubules  Flagella  Cilia o Lungs are ciliated o Grow out of a basal body o Arrange in 9+2 o 9 doublet and 2 in the cell  Motor proteins in the cell o Dynein and kinesis  Powered by ATP o Uses ATP to change its shape o Rachet around o Dynein undergo change o Dynein delivers vesicles along microtubule *Cancer- if you inhibit microtubules your stopping chromosome division Microfilaments  Actin filament  Resist pulling forces  Cell motility, pinching during cell division  3 types of muscle o Skeletal muscle  Voluntary  Multinucleated cell  Muscle fibers contains many myofibrils o They are surrounded by mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticula (specializes ER) o Mysosin has confirmation change  Contract and lengthen o Attach to actin o Mysosin head bound by ADP molecule  ADP—diphosphate group  ATP—triphosphate group o Interaction results of phosphate and ADP group  Confirmation change and muscle movement o Then ATP binds to head then turns into ADP and original head o Actin with 2 other proteins  Tropomyosin  Twisted around actin filament  Troponin o ATP hydrolizes and returned to ADP+phosphate group o If calcium is present then it will continue Intermediate filaments  Permanent  Shape  Nuclear lamina  No common set structure  Nucleus encaged in this Cell:Cell interactions  Plant cells encased by a thick cell wall  Protection  Regulates water uptake  Shape  1 cell wall (young plants)  middle lamella—sticky polysaccharides (pectin) holds walls together and secrete between cell wall  2 cell wall—strong and durable, secondary cell wall  Animal cells lack cell wall  The extracellular matric (ECM) is secreted by the cell o Provides support o Allows communication (Mina Bissell) o Protection o Anchor  ALSO  Composed of glycoprotein secreted from the cell  Proteoglycans  Collagen—found in connective tissue  Fibronectin  Integrins Adhesion and junctions between cells  In many animal tissues ECM seperates cells  In some tissues the plasma membranes of adjacent cells are in contact o This is how cells communicate  Structure = function o Role of tissue + type of junction Types of Junctions  Tight o Occluding junction o Connect plasma membrane of adjacent cells in sheets o Barrier o Stitch 2 plasma membranes together o Water tight o Prevents small molecules from leaking between the cells  Ex. Gut cells, skin cells, stomach cells  Anchoring o Mechanically attach cytoskeletons of adjacent cells or to the ECM o Resist mechanical stress o Join cytoskeleton of one cell to another o Mechanical strength o Adherins junctions  Cell cell interaction o Cadherins  Transmembrane proteins o catenins (integrins)  protein  Ex. Heart muscle cells, Crohns disease  Communication o Gap junctions o Plasmodesmata in plants o Link cytoplasm of neighboring cells o Permit free passage btw cells of ions and small molecules o Connexons o Create
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