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Lecture 3

BIOSC 0160 Lecture 3: Biology 2 Lecture 1.3: How do genes work? What is the central dogma?

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University of Pittsburgh
Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160

Biology Week 2 Lecture 1.3 How do genes determine the phenotype and traits of an organism? Mendel hereditary factors Beadle and Tatum o 1940s o If you broke a gene in an individual and compared it to an individual with the gene intact, you can predict what the gene does Basis for the field reverse genetics Works oppositely of classicalforward genetics o Knock outnulllossoffunction mutants o Onegene, oneenzyme hypothesis produced mutations in mold using xray radiation one gene was enough because mold exists primarily as haploids the radiation broke the gene which resulted in a broken nonfunctional enzyme concluded that one gene codes one enzyme This was later revised to onegene, oneprotein o Revised again to onegene, onepolypeptide (not considering alternative splicing) Francis Crick o Genetic code hypothesis the nucleotide sequence of DNA is a code which stores information Different combinations specify amino acids Triplet code one codon consists of three bases which determine the amino acid 64 possible codons redundancy Some protection against mutations Realized it was 3 because adding or deleting 1 or 2 bases changed all of the codons and no functional protein was produced, but addingdeleting 3 produced a functional protein (with an extramissing amino acid) o Central Dogma summarizes the flow of information in a cell DNA codes for RNA and RNA codes for protein Replication transcription translation Exceptions: Many genes code for RNAs that are not translated into proteins tRNAs and rRNAs (for translation) or microRNAs (regulate gene expression) There is some flow of information from RNA to DNA reverse transcriptase Jacob and Monod o Hypothesized that small, shortlived RNA molecules (mRNA) act as messengers between DNA in the nucleus and protein synthesis machinery in the cytosol Nirenberg and Leder
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