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Lecture 20

BIOSC 0160 Lecture 20: Biology 2 Lecture 3.3: Intro to Ecology

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University of Pittsburgh
Biological Sciences
BIOSC 0160

Biology Week 13 33017 Intro to Ecology Synapomorphy: shared derived trait SINEs: short interspersed nuclear elements, a type of transposable element (mobile DNA sequences that can copy themselves and insert themselves into different places in the genome o Provide good evidence for constructing phylogenies because the chance of the same SINE inserting itself into exactly the same place in different genomes is very very small From this we can conclude that cetaceans (whales) are artiodactyls whose most closely related taxon are hippos Why do trees matter? o Trees help us understand the evolutionary origin of human diseases Virus sister taxa to HIV1M Chimpanzee SIV Virus sister taxa to HIV2A Sooty mangabey SIV HIV viruses most likely jumped to humans when hunters were cut while skinning chimpanzees and mangabeys the global pandemix of AIDS occurred when these infections in local African populations spread rapidly around the world. This jump likely occurred around 1910. o CSI phylogeny HIV virus rapidly changes Dr. Richard J. Schmidt injected his girlfriend, whom he was giving vitamin B injections, with HIV and hepatitis from his previous patients o Identifying poaching Scientists sequenced mitochondrial gene of whale meats to find illegal poaching o Understand biodiversity Circle tree of life by David Hillis shows ~3000 species, only 3 mammals o Adaptive radiation: a single lineage leads to a diverse group of new species that are adapted to different habitats; it is a pattern that we see in certain phylogenies They have a single ancestral species and thus make a monophyletic group Diversification from a single origin Rapid speciation Small populations, opportunities for isolation Ecological diversification They fill many niches (different roles in the ecosystem) o Ecomorph: Species with the same habitatniche Why do the islands have the same type of ecomorphs? they have similar environments Polytomy: we dont have enough information to distinguish which species are most closely related, so there are multiple branches coming off one node Molecular genetics and development different alleles give rise to different phenotypes Evolutionary processes natural selection Ecological processes o Examining why and how some variants survive and reproduce better than others How organisms interact with environment
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