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Lecture 17

KOREAN 0070 Lecture 17: Japanese Colonial Rules 02282017
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Department
Korean
Course
KOREAN 0070
Professor
Seung-hwan Shin
Semester
Spring

Description
Japanese  Colonial  Rules Tuesday,  February  28,  2017 2:25  PM Film  Project  for  10pts  Extra  (due  march  10) • Three  Stages ○ Military  Rule  (1910 -­‐1919) ○ Cultural  rule  (1920s) ○ Forced  assimilation  and  war  mobilization  (1930s -­‐1945) • Military  Rule  (1910 -­‐1919)* ○ The  dark  perioamhukki):  coercive  measures  to  turn  Korea  into  Japan's   colony ○ Politics:  brutal  suppressions  of  anti -­‐Japan  resistances. • Society:  under  strict  censorship ○ All  major  private  newspapers  and  organizations  were  closed  down. ○ A  permit  system  to  regulate  public  assembly  of  any  kind • Economy:   ○ #  new  land  registration  policy § With  little  knowledge  of  the  new  system,  thousands  of  peasants  lost   their  land § With  the  land  survey  completed  in  1918,  the  government  genral  of   Korea  controlled  about  40  percent  of  all  farm  and  forest  land  in   Korea § Pro-­‐Japan  landlords  who  benefited  from  the  land  survey  (the   increase  of  landholdings  and  the  gradual  rise  in  tenancy). ○ #  A  construction  boom § Government  buildings,  railroads,  electricity,  phone  lines,  dams,   irrigation  works,  etc. • Largely,  to  improve  Korea's  infrastructure  for  colonization  purposes • March  1st  Movement  (1919) ○ Early  public  demonstration  against  Japanese  colonization  of  Korean ○ Provisional  government  in  Shanghai § Shanghai  home  to  many  Korean  Independence  fighters  since  then ○ Sparked  many  anti-­‐colonization  movements  across  the  Asian • Cultural  Rule  (1920s) ○ Shifts  in  colonial  strategies  after  the  March  1st  Movement § Softer  policies  of  manipulation  (more  inclusive  of  Koreans)  over   overt  repression. ○ Politics ○ Sparked  many  anti-­‐colonization  movements  across  the  Asian • Cultural  Rule  (1920s) ○ Shifts  in  colonial  strategies  after  the  March  1st  Movement § Softer  policies  of  manipulation  (more  inclusive  of  Koreans)  over   overt  repression. ○ Politics § More  tolerance  of  public  assembly § More  freedom  to  press ○ Economy § Investment  in  agriculture  (40%  increase  of  rice  production  in  the   1920s)* □ Partly  as  a  solution  to  the  social  unrest  in  Japan  caused  by  the   sharp  increase  in  rice  prices  at  the  end  of  World  War  I. § More  generous  on  the  development  of  Korean -­‐owned  companies. **   □ Often  with  the  intention  to  divert  the  Korean  economic  elite   from  the  movement  of  economic  nationalism.  For  instance,   Japan  offered  subsidies  to  select  Korean  companies,  which   allowed  them  to  compete  with  Japanese  corporations.  In  this   way,  the  Japanese  “successfully  drove  a  wedge  between  large   businessmen  and  the  nationalist  leaders”  (p.  65).   ○ Society   § The  military  -­‐>  civilian  police  forces § Expansion  of  the  public  school  system • Korea  under  the  1920s  Cultural  Rules ○ The  1920s  as  a  time  for  renewed  political  and  cultural  activity § A  publishing  boom  despite  the  censorship  of  the  colonial   government. § The  upsurge  of  organizational  activity:  a  variety  of  local  and  national   associations  or  clubs  (985  registered  organizations  of  all  types  in   1920).**   § The  language  movement  and  the  growth  of  national  literature.***   ○ The  1920s  and  the  division  within  the  nationalist  movement § Anti-­‐colonialism  as  the  base  of  national  unity,  but  nationalism  in   opposition  to  colonialism  as  a  negative  bond § Irresolvable  conflicts  over  which  social  group  or  class  to  claim  the   leadership  of  a  new  independent  Korean  society. § A  deep  divide  among  political  leaders  and  social  groups  (particularly   between  left  and  right).   • Nationalism  and  Internal  Division ○ Moderate  nationalism § In  favor  of  working  within  the  system  to  prepare  the  groundwork   for  future  independence. § Cultural/economic  nationalism  over  a  direct  political  or  armed   between  left  and  right).   • Nationalism  and  Internal  Division Moderate  nationalism ○
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