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Lecture 13

NROSCI 0081 Lecture 13: Pharmacokinetics and Addiction

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April Dukes

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Lecture 13 2617 Pharmacokinetics (cont.) ADME Metabolism o Any process that results in the chemical change in a drug in the body o Metabolism can make drug less active, more active, or inactivate o Liver major site of drug enzymatic metabolism Ex. Alcohol uses alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase to break it down and then acetate is excreted o Individual variation Age Race Sex o Changes in enzyme activity by the use of other drugs (an aspect of drug tolerance) Excretion o Drugs are metabolized in the liver where they are transformed into water soluble molecules o Most drugs are removed for the body via the kidney o Water soluble metabolites are excreted through the urine Breath, sweat, saliva, feces, and breast mold o Nonwater soluble metabolites are passed to the GI tract Halflife o Time for blood levels to reduce by 50 of maximum o Different drugs have different halflives why different drugs have different dosages Addiction Drug use and abuse costs the US >600 billion annually Illicit drug use vs. addiction o 10 of Americans within the past month used illicit drugs o A quarter of them report being addicted o 810 of drug users seek therapy May not need therapy May need it, but not receive it May not think they need therapy o Drug use is not changing that much (since 2002) Marijuana use went up slightly, psychotherapeutics and cocaine down slightly Cigarette use has gone down, due to social changes A behavioral pattern of drug use characterized by overwhelming involvement with a drug Addiction vs. Dependence o Drug dependence Usually refers to a physical dependence on a substance
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