CHM 11500 Lecture 26: Biochemistry

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CHM 115 - Lecture 26 - Biochemistry
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of biological molecules
Carbohydrates are built through photosynthesis
Photosynthesis uses light energy to combine CO2 and H2O molecules into
carbohydrates
General reaction: nCO2 + nH2O + light energy --> CnH2nOn + nO2
Carbohydrates are useful for:
Energy storage (sugars and starches)
Structural material (cellulose)
Component of ATP (energy transfer molecule)
Component of recognition sites on cell surfaces
Part of backbone of RNA and DNA
Sugars are the smallest carbohydrate molecules
The preferred structure of sugars is 5-6 membered rings that may be
joined together
Glucose:
Lactose:
Sugars are carbohydrate monomers
Sugar monomers may be joined into chains to form carbohydrate polymers such
as cellulose and starch
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Cellulose (top) and starch (bottom)
Amino Acids
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins
Amino acids consist of a central carbon bonded to an amine group, a carbon with
a carboxylic acid group, and one of 20 side groups, denoted as ‘R’
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Peptide bonding occurs between amino acids
Peptide bonds are the bonds between amine groups and carboxylic acid
groups
Inside the cell, the pH is at a level such that amino acids exist in their ionized
forms
Amino acids have different properties depending on the chemistry of their side
chains
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