PSY 29200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Internal Validity, Group Psychotherapy, Unconscious Mind

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29 Jan 2018
1. Comparing Careers
a. Clinical psychologist-work with more disturbed individuals, have a more well
rounded training (clinicians, researchers)
b. Counseling psychologist usually work with less disturbed individuals, given less
evidence based coursework
c. Psychiatrist medical school needed, prescribe medication and see patients
d. Social worker do not necessarily need an advance degree, focus on what is
going around an individual/ how the society impacts how the individual
functioning and hook the individual up with resources
e. School psychologist focus on academic setting and do testing for learning
disorders and others, having training in testing and diagnostics
f. Professional counselor counseling without testing, only go through two
additional years of school, and very applied learning, can specialize in different
g. All the aoe euie oe tha just a ahelo’s degee
2. Clinical Psychology
a. The field of clinical psychology integrates science, theory and practice to
understand, predict and alleviate maladjustment, disability, and discomfort, as
well as to promote human adaptation, adjustment, and personal development.
Clinical psychology focuses on intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological,
social, and behavioral aspects of human functioning across the lifespan, in
varying cultures, and at all socioeconomic levels
3. Training Models
a. Though 94’s: piail aadei
b. 1949: Boulder Model (Scientist-Practitioner)
i. learn clinical and research methods
ii. emphasize the evidence based treatment which is the reason for
research for objective treatment and the practice of the methods
iii. was a compromise for psychologists as the world needed help treating
returning veterans of world war 2
iv. Created from nothing
c. 1973: Vail Model (Practitioner-Scholar)
i. practice based, emphasizes psychotherapy instead of research
ii. created the PSY degree instead of PhD
1. PSY degree do not have to have a high GRE score, or high GPA
2. PSY degree is for people who just want to practice and do not
want to do research, trained in a specific vocation
iii. Alternative model, the boulder model still present
d. 1991: Clinical Scientist
i. emphasizes the research behind what works in clinical
ii. academy for psychological clinical science
iii. Purdue is the clinical scientist model!!!
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iv. A minority in the field
4. Purdue
a. 1946: Clinical psychology doctoral program established
i. among the first wave of accredited programs in 1948
ii. no psychology department
iii. no undergraduate major
b. Today: clinical scientist
i. The program seeks to produce excellent researchers who generate new
knowledge in clinical psychology (ex, research) as well as competent
clinicians who can deliver empirically-based clinical services (i.e.;
assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders)
Evolution of Clinical Psychology
1. Diagnosis
a. Europe, 1800s: only 2 diagnosis
i. Neurosis to be high in neuroticism, negative moods/emotions, high
symptoms of depression, anxiety, etc.
ii. Psychosis hallucinations, delusions, schizophrenia (primary psychotic
iii. Valuable distinction to make but too broad so not helpful as do not know
how to start treatment
b. Emil Kraepelin (1855-1926)
i. German Psychiatrist
ii. Emphasis on course of illness instead of current symptoms
1. There are many things that can have the same symptoms like
people who hallucinate could either be high on hallucinogens or
have schizophrenia
2. If you do not know the course, then you do not know the illness
3. Current diagnosis focuses on cluster of symptoms instead of
iii. Exogenous vs endogenous
1. Exogenous-external factors
2. Endogenous- internal factors (predisposed)
3. Almost always some mixture of both
iv. Kraepelinian dichotomy
1. Psychosis: schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
2. Distinction between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in
psychosis, but there are some overlapping symptoms
3. Bipolar disorder is episodic of depression and mania
c. DSM
i. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis be the
same across the world
1. DSM 1952 (144 p)
a. A pamphlet with all the knowledge known
2. DSM II 1968 (136 p)
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a. Added some specific symptoms
3. DSM III 1980 (507 p)
a. Gave concrete definitions for each disorder and diagnosis
4. DSM IV 1994 (915 p)
a. Got a lot more specific in its description and introductory
5. DSM V 2013
a. Took out the irrational idea of the fear
b. Longer sections
6. Discover more diagnosis and learn more about the different
disodes so that’s h thee is a iease i the ue of
pages in the DSM. Shows progression of the field
Current Controversies
1. Evolution of Psychotherapy
a. Through mid-9’s: Pshodai
i. Very vague and came from Freud
ii. Argues that all mental illness is from some unconscious conflict from the
iii. Trying to poke at unconscious mind
iv. The people doing therapy were not research based, it was more case
b. 1950s-1960s: Behaviorism (1st wave)
i. Argue that should only diagnose what can be seen, as you cannot see the
human mind: treat behavior
ii. Gave exposure therapy to treat phobias
1. Effective and can solve phobias
c. 1960s: Humanistic
i. Argued that need to be nice to patients and treat them as people
ii. Be supportive and validating and that will be enough to cure (not true but
helpful to make patient comfortable)
d. 1970s: Cognitive (2nd wave)
i. treating thoughts directly which are at the core of disorders
ii. major depression thoughts should be changed, get rid of the thoughts
that make the person depressed or have anxiety
e. 1980s-1990s: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy- CBT (3rd wave)
i. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
ii. Acceptance and commitment therapy
iii. Changing the thoughts, and behaviors of people which in turn changes
the people’s eotios eause all thee ifluee eah othe
iv. Target the core belief and change those thoughts
Cultural Issues
1. Clinical Interview
a. Key question
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