PT 503L Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Goniometer, Upper Guelders, Biceps
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PT 503 Physical Therapy Processes I
Principles of Measurement
Upper Quarter ROM and Manual Muscle Testing:
The Forearm and Wrist
a. Appropriate planes and axes for each upper extremity motion.
b. Expected normal ranges and end-feels.
a. Testing positions used for each UE joint motion
b. Testing position corresponding to muscle grade
3. Plan muscle testing and goniometric measurements of the forearm and wrist
that are organized by body position.
4. Perform muscle testing and goniometric measurement of strength and range
of motion of the forearm and wrist.
a. Clear explanation
b. Proper starting position
c. Adequate stabilization/ application of force
d. Use of appropriate testing motion
e. Accurately align goniometer and correct reading/ recording.
Norkin, Cynthia and White, Joyce. Measurement of Joint Motion, 5th edition
ROM: Forearm Supination (0-80): Normal End-feel is firm.
Forearm Pronation (0-80): Normal End-feel is hard or firm.
• Patient position: Subject is in sitting, with the shoulder in neutral, arm is
close to the side of the body. Elbow is flexed to 90, the forearm is
• Stabilization: Stabilize the distal end of the humerus to prevent medial
rotation and abduction of the shoulder.
• Motion: Start with forearm midway between supination and pronation.
Thumb is pointed at the ceiling.
• Center fulcrum of goniometer laterally and proximally to the ulnar styloid
process for pronation; medially and proximally to the ulnar styloid process
• Align proximal (stationary) arm parallel to the anterior midline of the
• Align distal (movement) arm:
o pronation: across the dorsal aspect of the forearm, proximal to the
styloid processes of the radius and ulna, where the forearm is most
level. Parallel to the styloid processes of the radius and ulna.
o supination: across the ventral aspect of the forearm, proximal to
the styloid processes of the radius and ulna, where the forearm is
most level. Parallel to the styloid processes of the radius and ulna.
R forearm supination PROM __________, ____end feel
L forearm supination PROM _________, ______end feel
R forearm pronation PROM __________, ____end feel
L forearm pronation PROM _________, ______end feel